The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Liina Pylkkänen (2002). Introducing Arguments.

URL: http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/dm/theses/pylkkanen02.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2522&langcode=ven (2021-09-19).


Example #1:

    a. Mahad9a    o-nok-a.
    snow       3sg.PAST-melt-FV
    'The snow melted'
Example #2:

    a. Mukasa    o-se-is-a                           Katonga
    Mukasa    3sg.PAST-laugh-CAUSE-FV             Katonga.
    'Mukasa made Katonga laugh'
Example #3:

    b. Mukasa     o-amb-el-a                         Katonga
    Mukasa     3sg.PAST-speak-APPL-FV             Katonga
    'Mukasa spoke for Katonga'
Example #4:

    Ndo-tandulela         tshimu       ya mukegulu
    1SG.PAST-survey old.woman the field
    `I surveyed the field for the old woman'
Example #5:

    Katonga ya-kwaant-i-dde                  Mukasa    ensawo
    Katonga    PAST-hold-APPL- PAST          Mukasa    bag
    `Katonga held the pot for Mukasa'
Example #6:

    Ndi-do-shum-el-a          musadzi
    1SG-FUT-work-APPL-FV lady
    `I will work for the lady'
Example #7:

    Nd-o-far-el-a               Mukasa       khali
    1sg-PAST-hold-APPL-FV Mukasa             pot
    `I held the pot for Mukasa'
Example #8:

    Nd-o-la          nama mbisi
    1sg-PAST-eat meat raw
    `I ate the meat raw'
Example #9:

    Nd-o-bambela   ndi bunyu
    1sg-PAST-swim 1sg naked
    `I swam naked'
Example #10:

    Nama yo        liwa     vho neta
    meat was       eaten 3pl tired
    `The meat was eaten tired'
Example #11:

    Nd-o-tshimbila    na      Mukasa       o neta
    1sg-PAST-walk     with    Mukasa       3sg tired
    `I walked with Mukasa while he was tired'
Example #12:

    Nd-o-shum-el-a             Katonga a     khou lwala
    1sg-past-work-APPL-FV Katonga 3sg STATE       sick
    `I worked for Katonga while he was sick'
Example #13:

    Nd-o-shum-el-a             Katonga o      neta
    1sg-past-work-APPL-FV Katonga 3sg tired
    `I worked for Katonga while he was tired'