The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Miriam Butt (2003). Tense and Aspect in Urdu.

URL: http://ling.uni-konstanz.de/pages/home/butt/pargram04-hnd.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2524&langcode=urd (2021-06-15).


Example #1:

    (8) vo     [likh -e   or p rh -e]-gi
    Pron.3 write-3.Sg and read-3.Sg-Fut.Fem.Sg
    `She will read and write.'
Example #2:

    (1 6 )    njum=ne         adnan=ko     dekh -a       h
    Anjum.F.Sg=Erg Adnan.M.Sg=Acc see-Perf.M.Sg be.Pres.3.Sg
    `Anjum has seen Adnan.'
Example #3:

    (1 7 )    njum=ne        adnan=ko      dekh -a       th - a
    Anjum.F.Sg=Erg Adnan.M.Sg=Acc see-Perf.M.Sg be.Past-M.Sg
    `Anjum had seen Adnan.'
Example #4:

    (2 0 )    njum            adnan=ko     mar-t-i       th -i
    Anjum.F.Sg.Nom Adnan.M.Sg=Acc hit-Perf.F.Sg be.Past-F.Sg
    `Anjum used to hit Adnan.'
Example #5:

    (21) m~     tala l ga-t-i          ...
    I.Nom lo ck put-on-Impf-F.Sg
    `Had I put on a lo ck, . . .'
Example #6:

    (27) a. m t bol-a            k r- o
    not speak-Perf.M.Sg do-2.Fam
    `You shouldn't keep speaking (saying things when you shouldn't)!'
Example #7:

    b. mil-n-e      a-ya            k r- o
    meet-Inf-Obl come-Perf.M.Sg do-2.Fam
    `You should keep coming to visit.'
Example #8:

    (28) a. nadya=ne     xt             likh li-ya
    Nadya.F=Erg letter.M.Nom write take-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya wrote a letter (completely).'
Example #9:

    b. nadya=ne      m kan         b na di-ya
    Nadya.F=Erg house.M.Nom make give-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya built a house (completely, for somebo dy else).'
Example #10:

    (30) nadya           m kan           b na-n-e l g- i         h
    Nadya.F.Sg.Nom house.M.Nom make-Inf-Obl begin-Perf.F.Sg be.Pres.3.Sg
    `Nadya began building a house.'