The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Nobuyuku Hiroe (2005). VN constructions without suru.

URL: http://www.essex.ac.uk/linguistics/pgr/egspll/volume7/PDFs/Hiroe.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2577&langcode=jpn (2022-01-26).


Example #1:

    John-ga      nihongo-o       kenkyuu-si-ta.
    John-NOM Japanese-ACC research-suru-PAST
    `John researched Japanese.'
Example #2:

    John-ga    [nihongo-o       kenkyuu-tyuu] yamai-ni taore-ta.
    John-NOM Japanese-ACC research-while disease-DAT fall-PAST
    `While John researched Japanese, he fell ill.'
Example #3:

    John-ga     [nihongo-o      kenkyuu-no-sai]      ziko-ga okot-ta.
    John-NOM Japanese-ACC research-GEN-when accident-NOM happen-PAST
    `When John researched Japanese, the accident happened.'
Example #4:

    John-ga     [nihongo-o       kenkyuu-ni] nihon-e it-ta.
    John-NOM Japanese-ACC research-PUR Japan-to go-PAST
    `John went to Japan (in order) to research Japanese.'
Example #5:

    a) [[PROi Yooroppa-o ryokoo]-tyuu]-ni, Tarooi-wa ima no okusan-to meguri-atta.
    PROi Europe-ACC travel-middle-in Taroi-TOP present wife-with met
    `Taro first met his present wife while traveling in Europe.'
Example #6:

    b) [[John-ga     Yooroppa-o ryokoo]-tyuu]-ni, Taroo-wa ima no okusan-to meguri-atta.
    John-NOM Europe-ACC travel-middle-in Taro-TOP present wife-with met
    `Taro first met his present wife while John was travelling in Europe.'
Example #7:

    a) John-ga [PRO nihongo-o              benkyoo-ni] daigaku-e dekake-ta.
    John-NOM          Japanese-ACC study-PUR uni.-to          go-PAST
    `John went to university (in order) to study Japanese.'
Example #8:

    b)*John-ga [Mary-ga           nihongo-o       benkyoo-ni] daigaku-e dekake-ta.
    John-NOM Mary-NOM Japanese-ACC study-PUR uni-to                   go-PAST
    `(lit.)John went to university in order for Mary to study Japanese.'
Example #9:

    a) John-ga     nihongo-o      benkyoo-tyuu, ....            (verbal cases only)
    John-NOM Japanese-ACC study-while
    `While John studies Japanese, ....'
Example #10:

    a) [PRO nihongo-o         benkyoo-ni] (John-ga     nihon-ni it-ta).
    Japanese-ACC study-PUR John-NOM Japan-to go-PAST
    `John went to Japan (in order) to study Japanese.'
Example #11:

    John-ga      ainugo-o syuutyuuteki-ni kenkyuu-tyuu, ....
    John-NOM Ainu-ACC intensively             research-while
    `While John is researching Ainu language intensively, ....'
Example #12:

    *John-no ainugo-no syuutyuuteki-ni kenkyuu-tyuu, ....
    John-GEN Ainu-GEN intensively              research-while
    `During the time of John's intensive research of Ainu language, ....'
Example #13:

    John-ga    [PRO ainugo-o syuutyuuteki-ni kenkyuu-ni] dekake-ta.
    John-NOM          Ainu-ACC intensively            research-PUR go out-PAST
    `John went out (in order) to research intensively on Ainu language.'
Example #14:

    *John-ga       tegami-tyuu-wa, ....
    John-NOM letter-while-TOP
    `(lit.)During John's letter, ....'
Example #15:

    *John-ga       unagi-o [turi-tyuu]-wa, ....
    John-NOM eel-ACC fishing-while-TOP
    `(lit.)During the time of John's fishing for eels, ....'
Example #16:

    a) John-ga    nihongo-o       kenkyuu-tyuu, (kasai-ga okot-ta).
    John-NOM Japanese-ACC research-while, fire-NOM happen-PAST
    `While John was researching Japanese, (the fire broke out).'
Example #17:

    b) John-ga     tabako-o       koonyuu-go, (okane-ga   nakunat-ta).
    John-NOM tobacco-ACC buy-after           money-NOM run out-PAST
    `After John bought the tobacco, (the money ran out).'
Example #18:

    a)*John-ga     nihongo-o      kenkyuu-ga, ....
    John-NOM Japanese-ACC research-NOM,
    `John was researching Japanese, ....'
Example #19:

    b)*John-ga     tabako-o         koonyuu-wa, ....
    John-NOM tobacco-ACC buy-TOP,
    `John bought the tobacco, ....'
Example #20:

    a) John-no nihongo-no         kenkyuu-ga (hazimat-ta).
    John-GEN Japanese-GEN research-NOM start-PAST
    `John's research on Japanese (started).'
Example #21:

    b) John-no tabako-no         koonyuu-wa (ihoo da).
    John-GEN tobacco-GEN buy-TOP           illegal is
    `John's buying the tobacco (is illegal).'
Example #22:

    a) John-no kinoo-no               tegami                      (nouns with modifiers)
    John-GEN yesterday-GEN letter
    `(lit.)John's yesterday's letter'
Example #23:

    a) John-no Mary-e-no    tegami
    John-GEN Mary-to-GEN5 letter
    `John's letter to Mary'
Example #24:

    (i) Koko-made-ga omosiro-i.         (=(25) Tsujimura 1996:136)
    here-until-NOM interesting-NON-PAST
    `Up to this point is interesting.'
Example #25:

    a) John-no kinoo-no              benkyoo               (VN with modifiers)
    John-GEN yesterday-GEN study
    `(lit.)John's yesterday's study'
Example #26:

    c) John-no eigo-no        benkyoo                      (VN with arguments)
    John-GEN English-GEN study
    `John's study of English'
Example #27:

    a) John-no eigo-no           benkyoo-tyuu(-ni), ....         (TCC with arguments)
    John-GEN English-GEN study-while(-at)
    `While John studies English, ....'
Example #28:

    c)??John-no kinoo-no             benkyoo-tyuu(-ni), ....    (TCC with modifiers)
    John-GEN yesterday-GEN study-while(-at)
    `(lit.)While John's study yesterday, ....'
Example #29:

    a) John-ga      ainugo-o              syuutyuuteki-ni kenkyuu-tyuu, ....              (verbal cases)
    John-NOM Ainu language-ACC intensively             research-while
    `While John is researching Ainu language intensively, ....'
Example #30:

    b) John-no ainugo-no                 syuutyuuteki-na kenkyuu-tyuu, ....               (nominal cases)
    John-GEN Ainu language-GEN intensive               research-while
    `During the time of John's intensive research of Ainu language, ....'
Example #31:

    a) [[Kanai-ga       Amerika-o       hoomon]-no ori]       ni wa, ....
    my.wife-NOM America-ACC visit-GEN occasion on TOP
    `When my wife visited the U.S.A., ....'
Example #32:

    b) [[Zikken-ga         syuuryoo]-go], ....
    experiment-NOM finish-after
    `After the experiment was completed, ....'
Example #33:

    John-ga      Ainugo-o KENKYUU tyuu ni
    John-NOM Ainu-ACC research           middle in
    `While John is/was doing research on Ainu, ....'
Example #34:

    a) John-ga     nihongo-o      benkyoo-tyuu(-ni), ....               (verbal cases)
    John-NOM Japanese-ACC study-during(-at)
    `While John is studying Japanese, ....'
Example #35:

    a) John-ga    nihongo-o      benkyoo-no sai(-ni), .... (verbal cases)
    John-NOM Japanese-ACC study-GEN occasion(-at)
    `When John studies Japanese, ....'
Example #36:

    a) [PRO nihongo-o         benkyoo-ni] (John-ga   dekake-ta). (verbal cases)
    Japanese-ACC study-ni         John-NOM go out-PAST
    `In order to study Japanese (John went out).'