ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Yuko Yanagida (2005). Ergativity and Bare Nominals in Early Old Japanese.

URL: http://ling.cornell.edu/japanese_historical_linguistics/TEAL[1].05-Yanagida.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2584&langcode=ojp (2021-06-13).

 

Example #1:

    (167)
    our prince-GEN noble man-SUBJ heaven-GEN under reign-POL-when
    `If our noble Prince was to reign the land...'
Example #2:

    b. Sayofime-no ko-ga ( ) fire-Øobj furi-si yama-no na (868)
    Sayo-Hime-GEN dear-SUBJ scarf wave-PAST hill-GEN name
    `the name of the hill where Sayo-Hime waved her scarf'
Example #3:

    (5)    a. aki yama-wo ( ) ikani-ka ( ) kimi-ga (         ) fitori koyu-ramu (106)
    autumn mountain-OBJ how-Q you-SUBJ alone cross-AUX
    `How do you cross the autumn mountain alone?'
Example #4:

    torite nageka-mu (3459)
    hold grieve-AUX
    sorrow.'
Example #5:

    (11) a. waga fe-no sono-ni ume-ga hana-Øsubj saku (837)
    my house-GEN garden-LOC plum-GEN flower bloom
    `There bloom the plum-blossoms in the garden of my house.'
Example #6:

    b. ifamura-ni kutsa-Øsubj musa-zu
    rock-LOC grass         grow-not
    `On the rock the grass does not grow.'
Example #7:

    (12) a. [wominafesi-Øsubj ofuru] safa... (1346)
    patrinias     grow marshy spot
    `the marshy spot where the patrinias grows'
Example #8:

    b. [ma-tori-Øsubj tsumu] Unate no mori...(1344)
    sacred bird live      Unate-GEN wood
    `the woods of Unate where sacred birds live'
Example #9:

    (13)   a. fagi-no fana-Øsubj ima-ka tiru-ramu (2118)
    bush clover-GEN flower now-Q fall-AUX
    `Are bush-clover flowers falling now?'
Example #10:

    b. sigi-Øsubj tare-ga tani-ka sumu (4141)
    snipe who-GEN field-Q live
    `Whose field do the snipes live in?'
Example #11:

    (14) a. aki-no fana-Øsubj kutsa-kutsani ari to...(4255)
    fall-GEN flower much           be that
    `(to say) that there are many sorts of flowers in fall season'
Example #12:

    b. ume-no fana-Øsubj ima sakari nari mi-mu fito-mo gamo (850)
    plum-GEN flower now bloom be see-AUX person wish
    `I wish someone would see blossoms of the plum being now blooming.'
Example #13:

    (16) a. tidori-Øsubj nanisi-kamo kawa-Øobj noboru (1251)                   (SOV)
    plover      why-Q         river   go up
    `Why does the plover go up the river?'
Example #14:

    b. wago ookimi-Øsubj kuni-Øobj sirasu-rasi (M. 933)                 (SOV)
    my emperor          country govern-AUX
    `The emperor might govern the country.'
Example #15:

    c. mekari fune-Øobj ama-Øsubj kogidu-rasi (1227)                    (OSV)
    gather-weed boat fishermen row-AUX
    `The fishermen row the boat to gather weeds.'
Example #16:

    d. waga furu sode-wo imo-Øsubj mitu-ramu-ka (139)                   (O-wo SV)
    I wave sleeve-OBJ my deer see-AUX-Q
    `Did my deer see the sleeves that I waved?'
Example #17:

    (17) a. [wago ofokimi-Øsubj ame-Øobj sira-tsamu-to] omofa-ne-ba...(476)
    my prince        country govern-AUX-that think-NEG-since
    `I did not think that our Prince would govern the country.'
Example #18:

    b. [ware-Øsubj kutsa-Øobj tore-ri] mi-mu fito-mo gamo (1943)
    I         weed take-AUX see-AUX person wish
    `I wish someone see me gathering weeds.'
Example #19:

    (18) a. Irago-no sima-fe kogu fune-ni imo-Øsubj noru-ramu-ka (42)
    Irago-GEN Isle-LOC row boat-LOC my maid go-AUX-Q
    `Does my maid go in the boat they may row to the Isle of Irago?'
Example #20:

    c. tabibito-Øsubj utinabiki nerame-yamo (46)
    traveller lie down sleep
    `Would the travellers lie down and fall into sleep?'
Example #21:

    b. omofi tuma-Øsubj kokoro-ni norite (3278)
    loving lord         heart-in ride
    `My loving lord rides on my heart.'
Example #22:

    (21) a. [okitu-nami-Øsubj ki-yoru] famabe (3237)
    offing-wave come          shore
    `the shore where the waves in the offing come'
Example #23:

    b. [tubame-Øsubj kuru] toki...(4144)
    swallow       come time
    `the time when swallows are coming.'
Example #24:

    (22) a. ume-no fana-Øsubj saki tiru sono-ni ware-Øsubj yuka-mu (1900)
    plum-GEN flower bloom garden-LOC I               go-AUX
    `I will go into the garden where plum-blossoms are blooming.'
Example #25:

    b. [kimi-ga yuku] umibe-no yado (3580, 3724)
    you-SUBJ go sea facing-GEN inn
    `the inn facing to the sea where you go'
Example #26:

    c. Naniwa he-ni hito-no yuke-ba...(1442)
    Naniwa LOC person-SUBJ go-when
    `when the man went to Naniwa...'
Example #27:

    (23)     [Asuka-gawa-Øsubj yuku] se wo haya-mi ...(2713)
    Asuka-river         go water-SUBJ fast-MI
    `since the river of Asuka where the water flows is very fast...'
Example #28:

    (25) a. Nara-no miyako-no Safo-gawa-ni i-yuki itarite (79)
    Nara-GEN capital-GEN Saho-river-LOC I-go arive
    `I arrived at the River Sahokawa at Nara.'
Example #29:

    b. Kume-no wakugo-ga i-fure-kemu iso-no kutsa-no -ne (435)
    Kume-GEN youth-SUBJ I-touch-AUX rock-GEN grass-GEN-root
    `the root of the grass that the youth of Kume might have touched.'
Example #30:

    c.   atsanagi-ni i-kaki-watari yusiwo-ni i-kogi-watari...(M. 1520)
    morning-calm-LOC I-paddle-go evening tide-LOC I-row-go
    evening tide, (he would) go rowing...'
Example #31:

    d.   Ama-no-gawa fasi watase tanabata-no i-watara-samu ...(2081)
    Heaven-GEN river bridge span Weaver-maid-SUBJ cross-AUX
    `Span a bridge across the Heaven's river, so Weaver-maid may cross....'
Example #32:

    e.   wotimidu i-tori kite kimi-ni maturite (3245)
    refuvenating water I-get come lord-DAT offer
    `...get the rejuvenating water and offer it to my lord.
Example #33:

    f.   Woti-no kosuge...i-kari moti-ki sika-naku-ni i-kari moti kite (3323)
    Ochi-GEN sedge I-cut bringe sit-NEG I-cut bring come
    and bring me.'
Example #34:

    g.   fototogisu Nifu-no yamafe-ni i-yuki naka-nimo (4178)
    cuckoo Nifu-GEN mountain-loc I-go cuckoo-EXCL.
    `I wish the cuckoo would go and call to the mountain of Nifu.'
Example #35:

    (28)      a. aki kaze-no ( ) fukamu sono tuki (3586)
    autumn wind-SUBJ blow that time
    `the time when autumn wind blows'
Example #36:

    b. fana-no ( ) saku tuki (4066)
    flower-SUBJ bloom time
    `the time when the flower is in bud.'
Example #37:

    miti-no kuma i-tumoru-made-ni tubarani-mo mi-tutu yuka-mu (17)
    road-GEN side I-cover-until closely-FOC see go-AUX
    across every corner of roads, I go watching the mountain.'
Example #38:

    (32)      . ...tanome-ya kimi-ga [waga na] nori-kemu (2639)
    trust-FOC/Q lord-SUBJ my name tell-AUX
    `Since (he) trusts in me, has the lord told my name?'
Example #39:

    wasura-e-me-yamo (447)
    forget-AUX-Q
    forget my dear who stood by me and saw it?'
Example #40:

    (44)   a. Simiyeeni-sgu-m-hoon
    smoke-APASS-ADJ-fish
    `to smoke fish'
Example #41:

    (45) a. [ama-wotome-Øsubj sifo-Øobj yaku] keburi (366)
    fishermaid          salt   burn-N smoke
    `rising smoke with which some fishermaids burn salt'
Example #42:

    b. [Nanifafito-Øsubj asibi-Øobj taku] ya no susite-are-do...(2651)
    Naniwa men       fire     burn-N hut-SUBJ sooty-be-CONJ
    `As the huts of Naniwa men in which they build fires are sooty...'
Example #43:

    c. [Sayofime-Øsubj fire-Øobj furi-si] yori oferu yama-no na (871)
    Sayohime      scarf wave-PAST ­N after given mountain-GEN name
    mountain'
Example #44:

    (46)     [Sayofime-no ko-ga ( ) fire-Øobj furi-si] yama-no na (868)
    Sayo-Hime-GEN dear-SUBJ scarf wave-PAST hill-GEN name
    `the name of the hill where Sayo-Hime waved her scarf'
Example #45:

    (47)    wago ookimi-Øsubj kuni-Øobj sirasu-rasi (M. 933)                (SOV)
    my emperor      country govern-AUX
    `The emperor might govern the country.'
Example #46:

    (48)    Afadi-no Nosima-no famakaze-ni [imo-ga musubisi fimo]-Øobj fuki-kafesu (251)
    Awaji-GEN Nojima-GEN biny wind-LOC maid-SUBJ tied string blow-flutter
    strings of clothes my maid tied.
Example #47:

    (50) a. koromo-no fimo-wo are-Øtopic tokame-ya-mo (3585)
    dress-GEN lace-OBJ I            untie-Q
    `The lace of dress, I will not untie, will I?
Example #48:

    b. wa-ga furu sode-wo imo-Øtopic mitu-ramu-ka (139)
    I-SUBJ wave sleeve-OBJ my deer see-AUX-Q
    `Did my deer see the sleeve that I waved?'
Example #49:

    (51)    isi-wo tare-Ø mi-ki (869)
    stone-OBJ who see-PAST-CONCL
    `The stone, who saw?'
Example #50:

    (52)    musubisi fimo-wo ...ware-fa tokimi-zi (M. 2919)
    knot lace-OBJ         I-TOP untie-not
    `The lace we knot (together), I do not untie myself.'