The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

David Y. Oshima (2003). Out of Control.

URL: http://csli-publications.stanford.edu/HPSG/3/oshima.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2626&langcode=jpn (2022-01-26).


Example #1:

    a. Max-ga Pat-ni nagu-rare-ta.
    Max-Nom Pat-Dat hit-Pass-Past
    `Max was hit by Pat.'
Example #2:

    a. Maxi -ga Pat-ni (zibuni -no) musuko-o nagu-rare-ta.
    Max-Nom Pat-Dat self-Gen son-Acc hit-Pass-Past
    `Max had his son hit by Pat.'
Example #3:

    Max-ga Pat-ni John-o nagu-rare-ta.
    Max-Nom Pat-Dat John-Acc hit-Pass-Past
    `Pat hit John on Max.'
Example #4:

    (4)   a. Maxi -ga Pat-ni {zibuni -o/?i } nagur-ase-ta.
    Max-Nom Pat-Dat self-acc        hit-Caus-Past
    `Maxi made Pat hit himi .'
Example #5:

    b. Maxi -ga Pat-ni (zibuni -no) musuko-o nagur-ase-ta.
    Max-Nom Pat-Dat self-Gen son-Acc hit-Caus-Past
    `Maxi made Pat hit hisi son.'
Example #6:

    c. Max-ga Pat-ni John-o nagur-ase-ta.
    Max-Nom Pat-Dat John-Acc hit-Caus-Past
    `Max made Pat hit John.'
Example #7:

    (i)   Taro-wa totuzen oogon-ni hutte-ko-rare-te          kyookiranbu-si-ta.
    Taro-Top suddenly gold-Dat fall-come-Pass-Gerund extreme joy-do-past
    "Taro was wild with joy as gold suddenly fell down."
Example #8:

    b. Max-wa Pati -ni zibuni -o bengo-s-ase-ta.
    Max-Top Pati -Dat selfi -Acc defend-Caus-Past.
    `Max made Pat defend himself.'
Example #9:

    (9)    Max-wa musume-o             nihon-ni ik-ase-ta.
    Max-Top daughter-Acc Japan-Dat go-Caus-Past
    `Max made/let her daughter go to Japan.'
Example #10:

    kare-wa sono koto-o sir-anakat-ta.
    he-Top that fact-Acc know-Neg-Past
Example #11:

    node-wa-naku, {zibuni -o/*i } hihan-s-are-ta            noda.
    it is not the case self-Acc         criticize-Pass-Past it is the case
Example #12:

    aida, zutto       benkyoo-suru huri-o-site-i-ta.
    while constantly study             pretend-Asp-Past
Example #13:

    wake up-Neg-Past
    `Max did not wake up though Pat gave him a shake.'
Example #14:

    (20)   Alice-wa Pat-ni wazato/umaku           yuuwaku-s-are-ta.
    Alice-Top Pat-Dat intentionally/aptly seduce-Pass-Past
    `Alice was intentionally/aptly seduced by Max.'
Example #15:

    (21)   Otonasiku ore-ni nagur-are-ro.
    obediently I-Dat hit-Pass-Imp
    `Be hit by me obediently.' (lit.)
Example #16:

    (22) a. *Max-wa wazato           kanemoti-da.
    Max-Top intentionally rich-be:Pres
    `Max is intentionally rich.' (lit.)
Example #17:

    b. ?Max-wa wazato           Pat-ni reitan-da.
    Max-Top intentionally Pat-Dat cold-be:Pres
    `Max intentionally treats Pat coldly.' (intended)
Example #18:

    (23) a. Otonasiku hon-o          yonde-i-ro.
    obediently book-Acc read-Asp-Imp
    `Keep reading the book obediently.'
Example #19:

    ing TV.'
Example #20:

    (24) a. Koko-ni i-ro.
    here-Dat be-Imp
    `Stay here.'
Example #21:

    b. Kare-wa wazato          soko-ni i-ta.
    he-Top intentionally there-Dat be-Past
    `He stayed there on purpose.'
Example #22:

    (cf. Sono hon-ga    yatto syuppan-s-are-ta. )
    that book-Nom finally publish-Pass-Past
    `That book was finally published.'
Example #23:

    the overseas department ran into the red.'
Example #24:

    (27)   Max-wa Pat-ni oogoe-o           das-are-ta.
    Max-Top Pat-Dat loud voice-Acc make-Passive-Past
    `Pat gave a loud cry (on Max).'
Example #25:

    (28) Kyoko-ga Syota-ni/niyotte izime-rare-ta.
    Kyoko-Nom Syota                bully-Pass-Past
    `Kyoko was bullied by Syota.'
Example #26:

    (29) a. Syota-ga ame-ni/*niyotte hur-are-ta.
    Syota-Nom rain                fall-Pass-Past
    `It rained on Syota.'
Example #27:

    b. Syota-ga musuko-ni/*niyotte gakkoo-o yame-rare-ta.
    Syota-Nom son                      school-Acc quit-Pass-Past
    `Shota's son quit school on him.'
Example #28:

    `Kyoko sang a song loudly on Syota.'
Example #29:

    (30) a. Batman-ga Joker-ni/niyotte mati-o hakai-s-are-ta.
    Batman-Nom Joker                 city-Acc destroy-Pass-Past
    `Joker destroyed the city on Batman.'
Example #30:

    Max-wa Pat-ni/niyotte orenzi-o kaisime-rare-ta.
    Max-Top Pat               orange buy up-Pass-Past
    `Pat bought up oranges on Max.'
Example #31:

    (31) a. Max-wa Pat-ni/*niyotte sonkei-s-are-teiru /ais-are-te-iru.
    Max-Top Pat                respect-Pass-Past love-Pass-Past
    `Max is respected/loved by Pat.'
Example #32:

    b. Alice-wa Pat-ni/??niyotte kami-o sawar-are-ta.
    Alice-Top Pat                hair-Acc touch-Pass-Past
    `Pat touched Alice's hair on her.'
Example #33:

    (32) a. Kyoko-ga izime-rare-ta.
    Kyoko-Nom bully-Pass-Past
    `Kyoko was bullied (by somebody).'
Example #34:

    b. Sensei-ga hihan-s-are-ta.
    teacher criticize-Pass-Past
    `The teacher was criticized (by somebody).'
Example #35:

    (33) a. Syota-ga sin-are-ta.
    Syota-Nom die-Pass-Past
    `Syota had someone die on him.'
Example #36:

    b. Syota-ga gakkoo-o yame-rare-ta.
    Syota-Nom school-Acc quit-Pass-Past
    `Shota had someone quit school on him.'
Example #37:

    `(They) discussed philosophy (which Max hates) on Max.'
Example #38:

    on Max.'
Example #39:

    `Max was praised by Alice in his/?*her house.'
Example #40:

    `Max had his/?*her picture shown (to him) by Alice.'
Example #41:

    (38) a. Sensei-ga      Hanako-o o-tasuke-ni-nat-ta.
    teacher-Nom    Hanako-Acc help-Hon-Past
    `The teacher   helped Hanako.'
Example #42:

    b. Hanako-ga      sensei-ni   o-tasuke-rare-ni-natta.
    Hanako-Nom     teacher-Acc help-Pass-Hon-Past
    `The teacher   was helped by Hanako.'
Example #43:

    (39) a. Sensei-ga hon-o     o-kaki-ni-nat-ta.
    teacher book-Acc write-Hon-Past
    `The teacher wrote the book.'
Example #44:

    b. Hanako-ga sensei-ni       hon-o       o-kak-are-ni-nat-ta.
    Hanako-Nom teacher-Dat book-Acc write-Pass-Hon-Past
    `The teacher wrote the book on Hanako.'
Example #45:

    get angry-Past
    `Max got angry because Pat scolded him.'
Example #46:

    node], hara-o-tate-ta.
    because get angry-Past
    `Max got angry because the teacher scolded him.'
Example #47:

    feel happy-Past
    `Max felt happy when Pat praised him.'
Example #48:

    toki], uresiku-omot-ta.
    when feel happy-Past
    `Max felt happy when the teacher praised him.'