The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Yan Huang (2003). Switch-reference in Amele and logophoric verbal suffix in Gokana.

URL: http://www.reading.ac.uk/app_ling/wp7/Huang.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2632&langcode=aey (2021-09-17).


Example #1:

    a. Ija        hu-m-ug             sab       j-ig-a.
    1SG        come-SS-1SG         food      eat-1SG-TOD.PAST
    `I came   and ate the food.'
Example #2:

    b. Ija        ho-co-min           sab       ja-g-a.
    1SG        come-DS-1SG         food      eat-2SG-TOD.PAST
    `I came   and you ate the food.'
Example #3:

    Ho bu-busal-en                   dana age qo-ig-a.
    pig SIM-run out-3SG-DS           man 3PL hit-3PL-TOD.PAST
    `As the pig ran out, the men killed it.'
Example #4:

    (8)    Ija    wa na        nu-f-ig                       wa cesaw-ig-en.
    1SG water in        go down if-SS-1SG             water divide-1SG-FUT
    `If I go down into the water, I will swim.'
Example #5:

    no-co-min                fi.
    go down-DS-1SG           if
    `The crocodile will get me, if I go down into the water.'
Example #6:

    'As I walked, I became hungry, and I ate.'
Example #7:

    cule-ce-b              taw-om.
    leave-DS-3SG           stand-1PL-REM.PAST
    `We came out and       stood with our mouths open.'
Example #8:

    (12) Ija    co-cob-ig                 wa hedo-i-a.
    1SG SIM-walk-1SG-SS              water finish-3SG-PAST
    'As I walked along, the rain stopped.'
Example #9:

    (13) Ija   dadan-ti-me-i             cucui-te-i-a.
    1SG confuse-1SG.O-SS-3SG fear-1SG.O-3SG-TOD.PAST
    `I was confused and then afraid.'
Example #10:

    ibul-do-co-b             wal mi-me-i...
    change-3SG.O-DS-3SG ripe become-SS-3SG
    it is ripe.'
Example #11:

    na tac-ein.
    on fill-3PL-REM.PAST
    the yam store.'
Example #12:

    Hedo-co-b        eu fal-doc      nu          cabi   sanan me-q-an.
    finish-DS-3SG that fence-INF for             work   start put-1PL-FUT
    we will start to do the fencing work.'
Example #13:

    Whereupon their parents would be completely confused!'
Example #14:

    (49) a. Ija co-cob-ig            seheli   q-ite-i-a.
    1SG SIM-walk-1SG.SS slip (SS) hit-1SG.O-3SG-TOD.PAST
    `As I walked I slipped and hurt myself.'
Example #15:

    `As I walked something made me slip and hurt myself.'