The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

John Beavers (2006). On the Nature of Goal Markers and Event Delimiters.

URL: http://lingo.stanford.edu/~jbeavers/japanese-goal-final.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2656&langcode=jpn (2022-01-20).


Example #1:

    (1)       (a) John-wa eki-made/ni       itta/modotta/orita.
    John-TOP station-until/to went/went-up/went.down
    `John went/went up/went down to the station.'
Example #2:

    (b) John-wa kishi-made/*ni oyoida/tadayotta/hatta.
    John-TOP shore-until/to swam/drifted/crawled
    `John swam/drifted/crawled to the shore.'
Example #3:

    John-wa too-ni/*made haitta.
    John-TOP tower-to/until went.in
    `John went into the tower.'
Example #4:

    John-wa too-ni/?made haitta.
    John-TOP tower-until        went.in
    `John went in as far as the tower'
Example #5:

    John-ga     ni-kai-ni/?#made        nobotta
    John-NOM 2nd-CL.floor-to/until went.up
    `John went up to the second floor.'
Example #6:

    John-ga     ni-kai-ni/made          nobotta
    John-NOM 2nd-CL.floor-to/until went.up
    `John went up to the second floor.'
Example #7:

    Merlin-wa yama-no               ue-made/ni shunkan-idoo-shita
    Merlin-TOP mountain-GEN top-until/to instant-move-did
    `Merlin teleported (in an instantaneous way) to the top of the mountain.'
Example #8:

    Kiatsu-ga       500-made/ni agatta
    pressure-NOM 500-until/to went.up
    `The pressure went up to 500.'
Example #9:

    Kiatsu-ga       6-ni/?#made agatta
    pressure-NOM 6-to/until      went.up
    `The pressure went up to 6.'
Example #10:

    John-wa hitotume-no hashi-no            mukoo gawa-ni/?made watatta
    John-TOP first-GEN bridge-GEN yonder side-to/until          went.over
    `John crossed/went over the first bridge'
Example #11:

    John-wa hashi-no         tochuu-made/*ni watat-te  hikikaeshita
    John-TOP bridge-GEN halfway-until/to went.over-PRT return
    `Going to halfway along the bridge, John returned'
Example #12:

    John-wa juk-kai-ni/made          nobotta/agatta
    John-TOP 10th-CL.floor-to/until went.up
    `John went up to the 10th floor'
Example #13:

    John-wa juk-kai-made/?#ni           nobotta/agatta
    John-TOP 10th-CL.floor-until/to went.up
    `John went up until the 10th floor'
Example #14:

    John-wa hashi-no         tochuu-made/ni itta/kita
    John-TOP bridge-GEN middle-until/to went/came
    `John went/came until halfway across the bridge'
Example #15:

    (a) John-wa (*eki-ni) hatta
    John-TOP station-to crawled
    `John crawled to the station'
Example #16:

    (b) John-wa (hatte)          eki-ni    itta
    John-TOP (crawling) station-to went
    `John went to the station (crawling)'
Example #17:

    (17) John-wa (eki-made) hatta
    John-TOP station-until crawled
    `John crawled to the station'
Example #18:

    (20)    (a) Gakkoo-ni-wa genkan-made-sika               hair-anakat-ta
    school-to-TOP entrance way-until-only enter-NEG-PAST
    `(He) entered the school only as far as the entrance way'
Example #19:

    (b) Sono ana-ni oku-made te-o            tukkonda
    this hole-to deep-until arm-ACC stuck
    `(I) put my arm deep into the hole.'
Example #20:

    (21)    (a) Ohiru-made kore-o         shite-kudasai
    noon-until this-ACC do-please
    `Please do this until noon.' (Temporal)
Example #21:

    (b) Yuka-kara yane-made nan-meetoru            arimasu ka?
    floor-from roof-until how-many-meters are            QUES
    `How many meters from the floor to the roof?' (Spatial)
Example #22:

    (c) Kono hooru-wa nisen-nin-made               haireru.
    this hall-TOP 2,000-CL.people-until hold
    `This hall can hold up to 2,000 people.' (Numeral)
Example #23:

    (d) Hikooki-ga deru-made robii-de tomodachi-to hanashite ita.
    plane-NOM leave-until lobby-at friend-with talking               was
    `Until the plane left I was talking with my friend in the lobby.' (Propositional
Example #24:

    (22)     (a) Mary-ga     boku-ni kono hon-o          kureta
    Mary-NOM I-DAT this book-ACC gave
    `Mary gave me this book.' (Dative/Recipient)
Example #25:

    (b) John-wa Mary-ni        hon-o        yom-ase-ru
    John-TOP Mary-DAT book-ACC read-CAUSE-NON.PAST
    `John will make Mary read a book.' (Causee)
Example #26:

    (c) Teeburu-no-ue-ni koppu-ga aru
    table-GEN-top-at cup-NOM exists
    `There are cups on the table.' (Location in Existential)
Example #27:

    (d) E-ga            doroboo-ni nusum-are-ta.
    painting-NOM thief-by        steal-PASS-PAST
    `The painting was stolen by the thief.' ((Logical) Subject of Passive)
Example #28:

    (24) John-ga     ohiru-made hashitta/nobotta
    John-NOM noon-until run/went.up
    `John ran/went up until noon.'
Example #29:

    John-wa juk-kai-made/?#ni           nobotta
    John-TOP 10th-CL.floor-until/to went.up
    `John went up until the 10th floor'
Example #30:

    (a) Nagayo-made bentoo-o tabeta
    Nagayo-until meal-ACC ate
    `(I) had a meal all the way to Nagoya.'
Example #31:

    (b) Kyoto-made neta
    Kyoto-until slept
    `(I) slept all the way to Kyoto.'
Example #32:

    (33)    (a) ?(?)Eki-ni hashitta.
    station-to ran
    `(He) ran to the station.'
Example #33:

    (b) ?(?)Akira-wa umi-no-naka-ni      hashitta/jampu-shita
    Akira-TOP     sea-GEN-inside-to ran/jump-did
    `Akira ran/jumped into the sea.'
Example #34:

    (c) Eki-no-naka-ni         hashitte-itta/?(?)hashitta
    station-GEN-inside-to running-went/ran
    `(He) went running into the station.'
Example #35:

    (d) Ishi-?(?)ni/ishi-no-tokoro-?ni jampu-shita
    rock-to/rock-GEN-place-to      jump-did
    `(He) jumped on the rock.'
Example #36:

    (e) ?(?)Soto-ni nigeta.
    outside-to fled
    `(He) fled outside.'
Example #37:

    (f) ?(?)Hidari-ni     tobu.
    left-to           leaps
    `(He) leaps to   the left.'
Example #38:

    (34) *Akira-wa umi-no-naka-ni     odotta
    Akira-TOP sea-GEN-inside-to danced
    `Akira danced into the sea.'