ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Borsley, Robert D., Maggie O. Tallerman & David W. E. Willis (2005). The syntax of Welsh (Chapter 9).

URL: http://people.pwf.cam.ac.uk/dwew2/diachrony.pdf

(Last accessed ).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2687&langcode=wlm (2021-09-16).

 

Example #1:

    (3)       a. Riuedi mawr o sswydwyr a                  gyuodassant y uynyd...
    numbers big       of officials      PRT rose-3P         up
    `Great numbers of officials got up...'                     (PKM 16.1819)
Example #2:

    b. Ac ystryw a         wnaeth y Gwydyl.
    And trick PRT made              the Irish
    `And the Irish played a trick.'                                (PKM 44.11)
Example #3:

    c. Y prenneu ereill a           deuei        ffrwyth arnunt...
    the trees     other PRT grew-IMPF fruit             on-3P
    `Fruit grew on the other trees...'                           (YSG 43878)
Example #4:

    d. Yn Hardlech y         bydwch        seith mlyned ar ginyaw...
    In     Harlech PRT will-be-2P seven years             at dinner
    `In Harlech you will be at dinner for seven years...'        (PKM 45.23)
Example #5:

    (8)                  Toat y neuad a              tebygei    y      vot     yn eur oll.
    ceiling the hall     PRT supposed 3SM be-VN PRD gold all
    `The ceiling of the hall he supposed to be all gold.'            (BM 3.3)
Example #6:

    lle] [wynt] a       dangossassant...
    place they PRT showed-3P
    the mountain in that place they showed...'
Example #7:

    y            diarchenu...
    to+3SM-GEN disrobe-VN
    `There came squires and young lads to disrobe him...'          (PKM 4.89)
Example #8:

    (20)        ...ac eissoes ef a        anet         meibon idaw ef...
    and yet       it PRT be-born-IMPERS sons   to-3SM him
    `...and yet sons were born to him...'               (YCM 30.67)
Example #9:

    a     damweinawd y Ywein ... kyrchu          y            coet...
    PRT happened        to Owain       attack-VN the          forest
    forest...'                                                          (BT 96.289)
Example #10:

    (23)        Ef a      danuon Duw ... taryan itt...
    it PRT send         God       shield to-you
    `God will send a shield to you...'                                  (YSG 2478)
Example #11:

    bovn...
    Bown
    `And then Sabot arose and called on Bown...'                 (YBH 28256)
Example #12:

    castiet    en      betman...
    punished in-the world-this
    world...'                                                    (GK 2.96.46)
Example #13:

    (32)      Ie, ... y      mae yno ryw        ystyr      hut.
    yes      PRT is       there some meaning magic
    `Yes, ... there is some magic meaning there.'
Example #14:

    hynny.
    that
    `Lord, ... we were sorry to have done that.'      (YSG 467980)
Example #15:

    b. A      drws y pebyll a         oed yn agoret...
    and door the tent         PRT was PRD open
    `And the doorway of the tent was open...'               (P 10.11)
Example #16:

    (37)        [V Gwyssyaw] a         oruc Arthur milwyr yr ynys honn.
    summon-VN        PRT did Arthur soldiers the island this
    `Arthur summoned the soldiers of this island.'          (CO 9223)
Example #17:

    (38)        [VP Kyrchu       tref arall] a       wnawn.
    head-for-VN town other PRT do-1P
    `We shall head for another town.'                       (PKM 54.3)
Example #18:

    (46)        A    hynny ny thygywys idaw.
    and that      NEG availed       to-him
    `And that didn't work for him.'                                 (PKM 11.2)
Example #19:

    (47)        ...a       hynny nys                gallei.
    and     that    NEG+3S-ACC       could
    `...and   that he could not do.'                                 (YSG 17801)
Example #20:

    (48)        ...ac      attep ny chauas           ef genthi     hi     yn hynny.
    and     answer NEG received       he with-3SF her in that
    `...and   he received no answer    from her in that (respect).' (PKM 7.1213)
Example #21:

    (49)        ...eissyoes dim o Seint Greal nys                   gweles ef.
    however none of Holy Greal NEG+3S-ACC saw               he
    `...however, he did not see the Holy Greal at all.'         (YSG 1335)
Example #22:

    Bendigeiduran uy mrawt
    Bendigeidfran my brother
    `...I am very sad to see anyone in the place of Bendigeidfran my brother...'
Example #23:

    (53)        ...y neb    a    wybu wneuthur pob         peth o      dim...
    anyone REL knew make-VN every thing from DIM
    `...he who knew how to make everything from nothing...'
Example #24:

    (67)        ...ef a     welei      varchawc yn dyfot             yn y erbyn...
    he PRT saw-IMPF knight YN come-VN                towards-him
    `...he saw a knight coming towards him...'                    (P 61.1718)
Example #25:

    (68)       ...wythnos y       bu          yn bwrw         marchawc beunyd...
    week     PRT was-PERF YN throw-VN knight               every-day
    or `for a week he unseated a knight every day...'                    (P 41.12)
Example #26:

    crydyon       wedy duunaw         ar y             lad.
    shoemakers WEDY conspire-VN on 3SM-GEN kill-VN
    him.'                                                     (PKM 58.1719)
Example #27:

    onys                  guahodwn.
    if+NEG+3S      -ACC invite-1S
    `...we'll be    disgraced by the chieftain ... if we do not invite him.'
Example #28:

    Manawydan.
    Manawydan
    `...Pryderi and Manawydan had their feast...'                  (PKM 37.78)
Example #29:

    (i)         Y gwyr a        wiscawd amdanunt...
    the men PRT dressed-3S around-3P
    `The men got dressed...'                                          (PKM 29.22)
Example #30:

    well     noc ef.
    better than he
    `...since a better knight than he never bore arms.'       (YSG 39723)
Example #31:

    (92)      a. A      drwc yd aeth       [PP ar senedwyr Rufein] hynny.
    and bad PRT went               on senators Rome         that
    `And the senators of Rome were sorry at that.'               (SDR 5401)
Example #32:

    c. Pa neges         y    dodyvch       [AP yma] chwi?
    what mission PRT come-PERF-2P              here you
    `On what mission have you come here?'                         (CO 4767)
Example #33:

    (93)          Gellwng [AP y mywn] wy...
    let-IMPER        in them
    `Let them in...'                                                (PKM 81.27)
Example #34:

    (103) a. Duw ... a        wyr     bot     yn eu hynny arnaf i.
    God ... PRT knows be-VN PRD false that                on-1S me
    `God ... knows that that is a wrong against me.'            (PKM 21.23)
Example #35:

    b. ...a     thebygu y              uot     yn wannach o          hynny ef
    and think-VN 3SM-GEN        be-VN PRD weaker from that           he
    `...and thinking that he was weaker as a result of that.'    (BD 47.278)
Example #36:

    (110)        Arch          didraha     yw honno...
    request       reasonable is     that
    `That is a    reasonable request...'                            (PKM 16.17)
Example #37:

    yn Annwuyn...
    in Annwfn
    `I shall put you in my place in Annwfn...'           (PKM 3.8)
Example #38:

    (113)        Canys dechreueist uy           llad,     gorffen.
    since started-2S     1S-GEN kill-VN finish-IMPER
    `Since you have begun to kill me, finish (it).'                  (PKM 5.28)
Example #39:

    tidi...
    2S-REDUP
    `I give you my word ... that I do not love you...'            (P 36.12)
Example #40:

    (119)       Ellwng          ef.
    release-IMPER 3SM-IND
    `Release him!'                                            (PKM 62.25)
Example #41:

    duw di
    God you-IND
    `...for God made you without your permission...'
Example #42:

    eisted y gyt...
    sit-VN together
    `And when food was ready, he and she went to sit together...'
Example #43:

    (147)       A     chyt archo            ef yti      rodi     yr eil...
    and though implore-SUBJ he to-you give-VN the second
    `And though he implore you to give him the second...'  (PKM 3.1920)
Example #44:

    (151)          ...mi a      tebygaf        y        byd     gwr idi     yn y lle...
    I PRT suppose-1S PRT             will-be man to-3SF soon
    `...I suspect that he will be her   husband soon...'             (P 63.2021)
Example #45:

    (154) a. A gredy        di ... gwneuthur o Duw Adaf?
    Q believe-2S you       make-VN of God Adam
    `Do you believe that God made Adam?'                                 (YCM 30.45
Example #46:

    (i)            Emystynnu idaw           ynteu yn y peir,          yny dyrr...
    stretch-VN to-3SM him            in the cauldron until breaks
    `He stretch out in the cauldron until it broke...'       (PKM 44.1920)
Example #47:

    yny doeth hyt y          vanachlawc...
    until came as-far-as monastery
    `The story says that he rode ... until he came to a monastery...'
Example #48:

    guarchaedic ef...
    besieged        him
    `...after the besieged ones had recognised him...'         (BD 146.4)
Example #49:

    yn llityawc...
    PRD angry
    `And then the knight attacked him angrily...'                (P 14.18)
Example #50:

    (157)         A    gwedy adnabot          hynny o Ywein...
    and after recognise-VN that         of Owain
    `And after Owain had recognised that...'                            (BT 78)
Example #51:

    ymeith odyno        hyt yn ynys arall bell].
    away from-there as-far-as island other distant
    `It happened to the wind that it took the boat away from there to another distan
Example #52:

    yn vyw...
    PRD alive
    `When the people of the country realised that I had come away alive...'
Example #53:

    y      ty
    the house
    `the bellows that were set up around the house'                (PKM 36.15)
Example #54:

    (173) a. ffiol eur a        anho              llawn diawt y           brenhin yndi
    vial gold REL fit-PRES-SUBJ full             drink the king           in-3SF
    `a golden vial that the king's fill of drink would fit into'         (LlB 3.22)
Example #55:

    b. Nyt oed long y          kynghanei        ef yndi.
    NEG was ship REL fit-IMPF-SUBJ he in-3SF
    `There was no ship that he could fit into.'                  (PKM 40.1011)
Example #56:

    (174)         y noss y         keueist y       mab
    the night REL got-2S the boy
    `the night that you had the boy'                                (PKM 23.25)
Example #57:

    ellynt ...       nac     ymladeu na ryueloed
    could-IMPF-3P neither battles nor wars
    wars'                                                          (P 7.1316)
Example #58:

    ti    amdanaf i.
    you about-1S me
    `I'm thinking what you wouldn't think about me.'       (PKM 86.1011)
Example #59:

    neb
    anyone
    `Many strange things that no one would believe.'      (FfBO 46.89)
Example #60:

    b. y      gwas teccaf ... a       welest eiroet
    the    lad fairest REL saw-2S ever
    `the    fairest lad that you ever saw'                               (P 43.234)
Example #61:

    (179) a. deu was            ieueinc
    two servant-SING young-PLUR
    `two young servants'                                             (PKM 81.23)
Example #62:

    b. [y] pump wraged            hynny
    the five      woman-PLUR these-PLUR
    `these five women'                                                (PKM 48.2)
Example #63:

    c. [y] pym meib         hynny
    the five son-NUM these-PLUR
    `these five sons'                                                 (PKM 48.3)