The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

David Y. Oshima (2008). Semantic divergence of -(r)are.

URL: http://www.stanford.edu/~davidyo/docs/rare.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2699&langcode=jpn (2022-01-27).


Example #1:

    a.   Max-ga Pat-ni nagur-are-ta.
    Max-Nom Pat-Dat hit-RARE-Past
    `Max was hit by Pat.'
Example #2:

    a.     Maxi -ga Pat-ni (zibuni -no) musuko-o nagur-are-ta.
    Max-Nom Pat-Dat self-Gen son-Acc hit-RARE-Past
    `Max had his son hit by Pat.'
Example #3:

    Max-ga Pat-ni John-o nagu-rare-ta.
    Max-Nom Pat-Dat John-Acc hit-RARE-Past
    `Pat hit John on Max.'
Example #4:

    (6)          Mukasi-ga     sinob-are-ru.
    old.time-Nom think.about-RARE-Pres
    `Old times come to mind.'
Example #5:

    (7)     Kikoribito-domo-mo kokoronarazu maw-are-keri.
    wood.cutter-Pl-also involuntarily dance-RAR-Past
    `Wood cutters too danced willy-nilly.'
Example #6:

    (8)     Kaze-no oto-ni-      zo         odorok-are-nuru.
    wind-Gen sound-      Dat-Emph be.surprised-RAR-Perf
    `(I) got surprised   at the sound of the wind.'
Example #7:

    (9)     Taro-wa doko-demo sugu-ni ne-rare-ru.
    Taro-Top wherever soon sleep-RARE-Pres
    `Taro is able to fall asleep at once, wherever he is.'
Example #8:

    (10)      a.    Sensei-ga      hon-o     kat-ta.
    teacher-Nom    book-Acc buy-Past
    `The teacher   bought a book.'
Example #9:

    b.    Sensei-ga      hon-o     kaw-are-ta.
    teacher-Nom    book-Acc buy-RARE-Past
    `The teacher   bought a book. (hon.)'
Example #10:

    (13)    a.    (Tukue-no ue-ni) hon-ga         aru. (existence)
    desk-Gen top-Loc book-Nom be.Pres
    `There is a book (on the desk).'
Example #11:

    b.    Taro-ni [musuko-ga aru]. (possession)
    Taro-Dat son-Nom be.Pres
    `Taro has a son.'
Example #12:

    (16)     a.  Mukasi-o       omoidas-ita.
    old.time-Acc recall-Past
    `(I) recalled old times.'
Example #13:

    b. Mukasi-ga        omoidas-are-ta.
    old.time-Nom recall-RARE-Past
    `Old times came to (my) mind.'