ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Demuth, Katherine & Jeffrey Gruber (1994). Constraining XP Sequences.

URL: http://www.cog.brown.edu/People/demuth/articles/1995%20Demuth%20&%20Gruber.pdf

(Last accessed ).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2715&langcode=sot (2021-06-15).

 

Example #1:

    (1) Ke-n-e ke-tla-reka dijo.                   (Sesotho/Setswana)1
    AGR-COP-PAST AGR-IRR-buy food
    'I would have bought food.'
Example #2:

    (2) a. Ke-tla-reka dikhomo.                    [As-[T-V]]    N
    ISG-FUT-buy 10cattle
    'I will buy cattle.'
Example #3:

    b. Ke-tla-di-reka.                         [As-[T-[Ao-V]]]
    ISG-FUT-10them-buy
    'I will buy them.'
Example #4:

    (3) a. Ke-di-rek-ile.                          [As-[[Ao-V]-T]]
    ISG-10them-buy-PAST
    'I (have) bought them.'
Example #5:

    b. Ke-a-di-reka.                               [As-[T-[Ao-V]]]
    ISG-PRES-10them-buy
    'I am buying them.'
Example #6:

    c. Ke--reka dikhomo.                          [As-[T-V]]   OBJ
    ISG-PRES-buy 10cattle
    'I am buying cattle.'
Example #7:

    (5) a. Ke-tla-be/bo     n/ke-ka-di-reka.              As-T-V      As-T-Ao-V5
    ISG-FUT-AUX ISG-POT-10them-buy
    'I will possibly buy them.'
Example #8:

    b. N/ke-ka-be/bo         ke--di-reka.            As-T-V      As-T-Ao-V
    ISG-COND-AUX ISG-CONT-10them-buy
    'I would be buying them.'
Example #9:

    c. Ke-tla-be/bo        ke--di-reka.              As-T-V     As-T-Ao-V
    ISG-FUT-AUX ISG-CONT-10them-buy
    'I will be buying them.'
Example #10:

    (6) a. Ke-tla-*(be/bo) ke--di-reka.                  As-T-*(V)      As-T-Ao-V
    ISG-FUT-AUX ISG-CONT-10them-buy
    'I will be buying them.'
Example #11:

    b. Ke-tla-be/bo     *(ke)--di-reka.                As-T-V      *(As)-T-Ao-V
    ISG-FUT-AUX ISG-CONT-10them-buy
    'I will be buying them.'
Example #12:

    c. Ke-*(tla)-be/bo ke--di-reka.                    As-*(T)-V      As-T-Ao-V
    ISG-FUT-AUX ISG-CONT-10them-buy
    'I will be buying them.'
Example #13:

    (9) a. Ke-ne               ke--di-reka.
    ISG-COP+PAST ISG-CONT-10them-buy
    'I was buying them.'
Example #14:

    b. Ke-se                   ke--di-reka.
    ISG-EXCL+PAST ISG-CONT-10them-buy
    'I am already buying them.'
Example #15:

    (10)    a. Ke--na le buka.
    ISG-PRES-COP with 9book
    'I have (be with) a book.'
Example #16:

    b. *Ke-tla-na le buka.
    ISG-FUT-COP with 9book
    'I will have (be with) a book.'
Example #17:

    c. Ke-tla-be/bo       ke--na le buka.
    ISG-FUT-COP ISG-CONT-COP with 9book
    'I will have (be with) a book.'
Example #18:

    (13)    a. *Ke-tla-rek-ile buka.                        *As-T-V-ASP
    ISG-FUT-buy-PERF 9book
    'I will have bought the book.'
Example #19:

    b. Ke-tla-be/bo ke-rek-ile buka.                As-T-V      [As-[V-ASP]]
    ISG-FUT-COP ISG-buy-PERF 9book
    'I will have bought the book.'
Example #20:

    (14)    a. Ke-tla-be/bo n/ke-ka-di-reka.                As-T-V       As-MOD-Ao-V
    ISG-FUT-AUX ISG-POT-10them-buy
    'I will possibly buy them.'
Example #21:

    b. *Ke-tla-ka-di-reka.                        *As-T-MOD-Ao-V
    ISG-FUT-POT-10them-buy
    'I will possibly buy them.'
Example #22:

    (15)    a. Ke-tla-be/bo      ke-sa-di-reka.           As-T-V As-Neg-Ao-V
    ISG-FUT-AUX ISG-NEG-10them-buy
    'I will not buy them.'
Example #23:

    b. Ke-tla-*(be/bo)       *(ke)-sa-di-reka.    As-T-*(V)*(As)-Neg-Ao-V
    ISG-FUT-AUX              ISG-NEG-10them-buy
    'I will not buy them.'
Example #24:

    (18)    a. Ke-n-e              n/ke-ka-be/bo ke--reka.        TNS > MOD > ASP
    ISG-COP-PAST ISG-POT-COP ISG-CONT-buy
    'I would have been (now) buying.'
Example #25:

    b. Ke-n-e               ke-tla-be/bo      ke--reka...   TNS > MOD > ASP
    ISG-COP-PAST ISG-IRR-COP ISG-CONT-buy
    'I would have been (now) buying (when ...)'
Example #26:

    c. Ke-tla-be/bo        ke-rek-ile dijo.                  TNS > ASP
    ISG-PUT-COP ISG-buy-PERF 8food
    'I will have bought...'
Example #27:

    d. Ke-rek-ile dijo.                                      TNS
    ISG-buy-PAST 8food
    'I (have) bought food'
Example #28:

    e. Ke--reka dijo.                                       TNS
    ISG-PRES-buy 8food
    'I am buying food.'