The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Shuichi Yatabe (2000). The syntax and semantics of left-node raising in Japanese.

URL: http://csli-publications.stanford.edu/HPSG/HPSG00/hpsg00yatabe.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2720&langcode=jpn (2022-01-27).


Example #1:

    (1) Ken o    hometa      hito to kenashita         hito
    Ken acc praise-past person and bad-mouth-past person
    `those who praised and those who bad-mouthed Ken'
Example #2:

    (4) a. Omoidashita?
    `Can (you) recall it?'
Example #3:

    b. Iya, omoidasanai.
    no recall-neg-pres
    `No, (I) cannot recall (it).'
Example #4:

    (5) a. [Omoidasu ka] [omoidasanai        ka] ga mondai da.
    [recall-pres q] [recall-neg-pres q] nom problem cop-pres
    `Whether (you) can recall (it) or (you) cannot recall (it) is the problem.'
Example #5:

    (7) a. Nihonjin ga me ni tsuita?
    Japanese nom eye dat adhere-past
    `Did (you) see a lot of Japanese people there?'
Example #6:

    b. Iya,   me ni       tsukanakatta.
    no     eye dat     adhere-neg-past
    `No,   I didn't    see (a lot of Japanese people).'
Example #7:

    (8) ME NI <tsuku           toki> to <tsukanai              toki> ga atta.
    eye dat <adhere-pres time> and <adhere-neg-pres time> nom be-past
    `There were times when (I) saw (a lot of Japanese) and times when (I) did not se
Example #8:

    o) urisabaita no ka] wa wakatte                     inai.
    acc sell-past nml q] top understand-ger             be-neg-pres
    `Although we know what Ken stole, we don't          know what Naomi sold.'
Example #9:

    no ka>, wakatte         inai.
    nml q> understand-ger be-neg-pres
    `We don't know how many books Ken stole and Naomi sold.'
Example #10:

    (13) NIHONJIN GA ME NI <tsuku                 toki> to <tsukanai            toki> ga atta.
    Japanese nom eye dat <adhere-pres time> and <adhere-neg-pres time> nom be-past
    `There were times when (I) saw a lot of Japanese and times when (I) did not see
Example #11:

    (38) [Dare ni mo] Ken wa [Naomi ga awanakatta to]              iwanakatta.
    [who dat also] Ken top [Naomi nom see-neg-past comp] say-neg-past
    `Ken said of nobody that Naomi had not seen that person.'
Example #12:

    (39) Ken wa [Naomi ga [dare ni mo] awanakatta to]         iwanakatta.
    Ken top [Naomi nom [who dat also] see-neg-past comp] say-neg-past
    `Ken did not say that Naomi hadn't seen anybody.'
Example #13:

    de katta.>
    inst buy-past>
    `Ken bought for cash, and Naomi bought on credit, a total of seventeen books.'
Example #14:

    ga iru.
    nom be-pres
    `There are people who are complacent about their own success as well          as