The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Chizuru Nakao (2004). A Note on Japanese Anaphoric R-expressions.

URL: http://www.ling.umd.edu/~cnakao/LR20_nakao_b.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2755&langcode=jpn (2022-01-26).


Example #1:

    (2)     a. *?Taro-wa Taro-o tatai-ta.
    Taro-Top Taro-Acc hit-past
    `Taro hit Taro.'
Example #2:

    (3)     a. Taro-wa [Taro-no okaasan]-o tatai-ta.
    Taro-Top Taro-Gen mother-Acc hit-past
    `Taro hit Taro's mother.'
Example #3:

    (i) Taro-wa TARO-O tatai-ta si, Jiro-mo soo da
    Taro-Top TARO-ACC hit-past and Jiro-also such be
    `Taro hit TARO (and no one else), and Jiro did, too."
Example #4:

    b.   Taro-wa [Hanako-ga Taro-o tatai-ta to] it-ta.
    Taro-Top Hanako-Nom Taro-Acc hit-past that say-past
    `Taro said [Hanako hit Taro].'
Example #5:

    (9)     *Karei-wa [Taroi-no okaasan]-o tatai-ta.
    he-Top Taro-Gen mother-Acc hit-past
    `Hei hit Taroi's mother.'
Example #6:

    (10)    a. *Taroi-wa [[ano baka]i-no okaasan]-o tatai-ta.
    Taro-Top that idiot-Gen mother-Acc hit-past
    `Taroi hit that idioti's mother.'
Example #7:

    b. *[Ano baka]i-wa [Taroi-no okaasan]-o tatai-ta.
    that idiot-Top Taro-Gen mother-Acc hit-past
    `That idioti hit Taroi's mother.'
Example #8:

    (ii) Taroi-ga saihu-o otosi-ta toki, ano bakai-wa sore-ni kiduka nakat-ta.
    Taro-Nom wallet-Acc drop-past time that idiot-Top it-Dat notice not-past
    `When Taroi dropped the wallet, that idioti didn't notice it.'
Example #9:

    (12)    Taro-wa [Taro-no okaasan]-o tata-ta si, Jiro-mo soo da.
    Taro-Top Taro-Gen mother-Acc hit-past and Jiro-too such be
    `Taro hit Taro's mother, and Jiro does, too.'
Example #10:

    (13)    a. Daremo-ga [daremo-no okaasan]-o tatai-ta.
    everyone-Nom everyone-Gen mother-Acc hit-past
    `Everyone hit everyone's mother.'
Example #11:

    b. [Sannin-no syoonen]-ga [[sannin-no syoonen]-no okaasan]-o tatai-ta.
    three-Gen boy-Nom three-Gen boy-Gen mother-Acc hit-past
    `Three boys hit three boys' mothers.'
Example #12:

    (i) [Sannin-no syoonen]i-ga [[sono sannin-no syoonen]i-no okaasan]-o tatai-ta.
    three-Gen boy-Nom the three-Gen boy-Gen mother-Acc hit-past
    `Three boys hit the three boy's mother(s).'