The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Butt, Miriam (2001). Case, Agreement, Pronoun Incorporation and Pro-Drop in South Asian Languages.

URL: http://ling.uni-konstanz.de/pages/home/butt/utrecht01-hnd.pdf

(Last accessed ).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2771&langcode=urd (2021-06-15).


Example #1:

    ji,        di-ya
    yes.Polite give-Perf.M.Sg
    `Yes, gave.'
Example #2:

    b. nadya=ne/ dnan=ne         gari    cala-yi         h
    Nadya.F=Erg/Adnan.M=Erg car.F.Nom drive-Perf.F.Sg be.Pres.3.Sg
    `Nadya has driven a car.'
Example #3:

    c. nadya=ne      gari=ko    cala-ya      h
    Nadya.F=Erg car.F=Acc drive-Perf.M.Sg be.Pres.3.Sg
    `Nadya has driven the car.'