The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Tomioka, Naoko (2004). The Lexicalization Patterns of Verbs and V-V compounds.

URL: http://edvarda.hf.ntnu.no/ling/tross/tomioka.pdf

(Last accessed ).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2790&langcode=jpn (2022-01-19).


Example #1:

    c. Ozo gha        gbe     ewe wu.              (Edo; Baker & Stewart (2002))
    Ozo FUT hit            goat die
    `Ozo will strike the goat dead.'
Example #2:

    d. A       nki hen      ki.                  (Sarammacan; Veenstra (1996) p.4)
    3sg     hit     3sg   kill
    `He hit it dead.'
Example #3:

    (6)      *Taro-ga      kaato-o          kabe-ni                  oshi-ta.
    Taro-NOM cart-ACC              wall-to                  push-PAST
    `Taro pushed the cart to the corridor.'
Example #4:

    a.   *Taro-ga           gakko-ni           arui-ta.
    Taro-NOM           school-LOC                  walk-PAST
    "Taro walked to school."
Example #5:

    b. *Taro-ga             tetsu-o        tairani                    tatai-ta.                  (Japanese)
    Taro-NOM             iron-ACC       flat                       pound-PAST
    `Jean/Juan/Taro pounded the metal flat.'
Example #6:

    (10)     * Taro-ga    Jiro-o                tataki-shin-da.
    Taro-NOM Jiro-ACC                  pound-die-PAST
    `Taro pounded Jiro dead.'
Example #7:

    (i)       (*Taro-ga)        jimen-ga/*o               fumi-katamar-ta.
    Taro-NOM          ground-NOM/ACC            stomp-harden(UNACC)-PAST
    "The ground hardened (by someone stomping on it)"
Example #8:

    (15) a. Jimen-ga      katamar-ta.
    ground-NOM harden-PAST
    `The ground hardened'
Example #9:

    b. *Taro-ga      Jimen-ga      fumi-katamar-ta.
    Taro-NOM ground-NOM harden-PAST
    `The ground hardened (by someone stomping on it)'
Example #10:

    (16) a. Jiro-ga         Ichiro-no       kubi-o              shime-ta.
    Jiro-NOM        Ichio-GEN       neck-ACC            strangle-PAST
    `Jiro strangled Ichiro's neck.'
Example #11:

    (17) a. Jiro-ga         Ichiro-o           koroshi-ta.
    Jiro-NOM        Ichiro-ACC         kill-PAST
    `Jiro killed Ichiro.'
Example #12:

    (18) a. Jiro-ga         Ichiro-o        shime-koroshi-ta.
    Jiro-NOm        Ichiro-ACC strangle-kill-PAST
    `Jiro killed Ichiro by strangling (him)'