The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Randy J. LaPolla and Yang Jiangling (1995). Reflexive and Middle Marking in Dulong-Rawang*.

URL: http://www.latrobe.edu.au/linguistics/stlapolla_data/PublicationItems/Papers/rmdr.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2826&langcode=duu (2022-01-22).


Example #1:

    (1)    a. a sat-
    3sg hit-R/M
    `He is hitting himself.'
Example #2:

    b. a mugu-mi kp-
    3sg raincoat-INST cover-R/M
    `He is covering himself with the raincoat.'
Example #3:

    c. a m-
    3sg curse-R/M
    `He is cursing himself.'
Example #4:

    d. a a-lp-
    3sg happy-R/M
    `He is happy.'
Example #5:

    e. a ew mit-
    3sg this.way think-R/M
    `He is thinking this way.'
Example #6:

    f. a et-
    3sg laugh-R/M
    `He is laughing.'
Example #7:

    (2)     a.  sat-i
    1sg hit-R/M.1sg
    `I hit myself.'
Example #8:

    b. ane sat-i-
    1dl     hit-R/M-dl
    `The two of us hit ourselves.'
Example #9:

    (i)     a a-d l
    3sg self        return
    `S/he went back by himself/herself (without anyone assisting).'
Example #10:

    c. i sat-i:
    1pl hit-R/M.1pl
    `We hit ourselves.'
Example #11:

    d. n n-sat-
    2sg    2-hit-R/M
    `You hit yourself.'
Example #12:

    e. nne n-sat-i-
    2dl        2-hit-R/M-dl
    `The two of you hit yourselves.'
Example #13:

    f. nni n-sat-in
    2pl         2-hit-R/M-2pl
    `You hit yourselves.'
Example #14:

    g. a(ane, ani) sat-
    3sg 3dl         3pl       hit-R/M
    `S/he (they-dual, they) hit himself/herself/themselves.'
Example #15:

    (i)     an a-
    3pl        INTR-look
    `They are looking at each other.'
Example #16:

    (7)    a. a ma%a-mi                 a-
    3sg      mirror-INST       look-R/M
    `He is looking at himself in the mirror.'
Example #17:

    b. a tal--di
    3sg      roll-R/M-DIR
    `He rolled himself down (the hill).'
Example #18:

    (10)        a a tal ma% ti
    3sg 3sg child    face   wash
    `He is washing his child's face.'
Example #19:

    (12)   a. a u           l-      le di di
    3sg head cut(hair)-R/M DAT go ASP
    `He went to cut his hair.'
Example #20:

    b. a u       l      le   di di
    3sg head cut(hair) DAT go ASP
    `He went to cut (someone's) hair.'
Example #21:

    (13)    a. a twan k%-
    3sg snow         shake-R/M
    `He is shaking off the snow (from his body).'
Example #22:

    b. a twan k%
    3sg snow         shake
    `He is shaking off the snow.'
Example #23:

    c. a -ti-tap wn-                         d. a ku-ti-m su-
    3sg cloth-one-CL       buy-R/M                3sg bee-one-nest        raise-R/M
    `He is buying (himself) clothing.'            `He is raising bees (for himself).
Example #24:

    (15)   a. a am pi-
    3sg sword hang.on.shoulder-R/M
    `He has a knife on.'
Example #25:

    b. a am pi
    3sg sword hang.on.shoulder
    `He is putting on a knife.' or `He has a knife on.'
Example #26:

    (16)   a. a -psi-ti-tp                gu-
    3sg cloth-red-one-CL             put.on/wear-R/M
    `He is wearing a piece of red clothing.'
Example #27:

    b. a -psi-ti-tp             gu
    3sg cloth-red-one-CL            put.on/wear
    `He is putting on/wearing a piece of red clothing.'
Example #28:

    (18)       a            s-kam
    3sg clothing CAUS-dry
    `He is drying clothes.'
Example #29:

    (19)       a s-kam-
    3sg CAUS-dry-R/M
    `He is drying himself.'
Example #30:

    (20)       a            s-kam-
    3sg clothing CAUS-dry-R/M
    `He is drying (his) clothes.'
Example #31:

    (21)   a. a me s-b-
    3sg eye     CAUS-blind-R/M
    `He blinded himself.'
Example #32:

    b. a ma% s-n-
    3sg face    CAUS-black-R/M
    `He blackened (made dirty) his own face.'
Example #33:

    (22)       a pu-le                                s-gu
    3sg   Pung (pers. name)-DAT       clothing CAUS-put on
    `He made Pung put his clothes on.'
Example #34:

    (23)   a. a        s-gu-
    3sg cloth CAUS-put on-R/M
    `He (causes himself to) put his clothes on.'
Example #35:

    b. a am s-pi-
    3sg knife CAUS-hang.on.shoulder-R/M
    `He (causes himself to) put on a knife.'
Example #36:

    (24)   a. a a-mei          s-gu-
    3sg 3sg-mother cloth CAUS-put on-R/M
    `He had his mother put his clothes on him.'
Example #37:

    b   a manb-le man           s-ap-
    3sg doctor-DAT       medicine CAUS-inject-R/M
    `He had the doctor give him an injection.'
Example #38:

    (25)   a man          s-ap-
    3sg medicine CAUS-inject-R/M
    `He had (the doctor or someone) give him an injection.'
Example #39:

    (26)   a-(mi) pu-le            mugu-mi s% kp d:%
    3sg (AGT) Pung DAT raincoat-INST luggage cover cause
    `He is making Pung cover the luggage with the raincoat.'
Example #40:

    (27)   a-mi pu-(le) ma% ti- d:%
    3sg-ERG Pung-DAT face         wash-R/M cause
    `He made Pung wash his face.'
Example #41:

    (28)   a-mi         pu-(le)     s-kam- d:%
    3sg-ERG Pung-DAT cloth CAUS-dry-R/M              cause
    `He made Pung dry his clothes (with Pung wearing them).'
Example #42:

    (29)   a-mi pu (manb-le) man                  s-ap-         d:%
    3sg-ERG Pung doctor-DAT           medicine CAUS-inject-R/M cause
    `He had Pung go get an injection.'