ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Katherine Demuth (1998). Argument structure and the acquisition of Sesotho applicatives.

URL: http://www.cog.brown.edu/People/demuth/articles/1998%20Demuth.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2934&langcode=sot (2021-06-15).

 

Example #1:

    (1)    a.      Thabo o-tla-pheh-a     dijo
    Thabo AGR-FUT-cook food
    'Thabo will cook some food'
Example #2:

    b.      Thabo o-tla-pheh-el-a         bana    dijo
    Thabo AGR-FUT-cook-APL children food
    /some food for the children'
Example #3:

    a.      Dintja di-hol-a  kapele
    dogs AGR-grow fast
    `Dogs grow fast'
Example #4:

    b.      Dintja di-hol-ela-a     kapele serob-eng
    dogs AGR-grow-APL fast          barn-LOC
    `Dogs grow up fast in the barn'
Example #5:

    a.      Banna ba-lwan-a ka-matla
    men AGR-fight with-strength
    `The men are fighting fiercely'
Example #6:

    a.      Banna ba-lwan-el-a      bashanyana
    men AGR-fight-APL boys
    `The men are fighting for the boys'
Example #7:

    (4)    a.      Banana ba-math-a lebal-eng
    girls   AGR-run playground-LOC
    `The girls are running in the playground'
Example #8:

    b.      Banana ba-math-el-a bashanyana
    girls   AGR-run-APL boys
    `The girls are running for the boys'
Example #9:

    a.      Bana     ba-pheh-a nama
    children AGR-cook meat
    `The children are cooking meat'
Example #10:

    b.      Bana     ba-pheh-el-a   `me      nama
    children AGR-cook-APL mother meat
    `The children are cooking meat for my mother'
Example #11:

    (6)    a.      Barutuwa ba-bu-a      sekhowa
    students AGR-speak English
    `The students are speaking English'
Example #12:

    b.      Barutuwa ba-bu-el-a         ntate sekhowa
    students AGR-speak-APL father English
    `The students speak English for/to my father'
Example #13:

    (7)    a.      Banna ba-pheh-el-a     nama khotla (Locative)
    men AGR-cook-APL meat courtyard
    `Men cook meat in the courtyard'
Example #14:

    b.      Pula e-n-el-a         ditulo-ng               (Locative)
    rain AGR-fall-APL chairs-LOC
    `Rain is falling on the chairs'
Example #15:

    c.      Pula e-n-el-a         ditulo                  (Goal)
    rain AGR-fall-APL chairs
    `Rain is falling on the chairs'
Example #16:

    (8)    a.      Banana ba-math-a lebal-eng
    girls   AGR-run playground-LOC
    `The girls are running in the playground'
Example #17:

    b.      Banana ba-math-el-a lebal-eng
    girls   AGR-run-APL playground-LOC
    `The girls are running to/in the playground'
Example #18:

    c.      Banana ba-math-el-a ntate lebal-eng
    girls   AGR-run-APL father playground-LOC
    `The girls are running for/to my father in the playground'
Example #19:

    (10)   a.     Banana ba-phe-el-a      `me     nama
    girls   AGR-cook-APL mother meat
    `The girls are cooking meat for my mother'
Example #20:

    b.     *Banana ba-pheh-el-a     nama `me
    girls     AGR-cook-APL meat mother
    `The girls are cooking meat for my mother'
Example #21:

    (11)   a.     Rakhali o-rek-ets-e    dieta tsa-hae pholeshe
    aunt   AGR-buy-APL shoes of-her polish
    `My aunt has bought her shoes polish '
Example #22:

    b.     *Rakhali o-rek-ets-e    pholeshe dieta tsa-hae
    aunt    AGR-buy-APL polish         shoes of-her
    `My aunt has bought polish for her shoes'
Example #23:

    (12)   a.     Sello o-shap-el-a       Dineo bashanyana
    Sello AGR-beat-APL Dineo boys
    ii. `Sello beats Lineo for the boys'
Example #24:

    b.     Sello o-shape-el-a      bashanyana Dineo
    Sello AGR-beat-APL boys              Dineo
    ii. `Sello beats the boys for Lineo'
Example #25:

    (13)          Banana ba-pheh-el-a     `me      nama
    girls   AGR-cook-APL mother meat
    `The girls are cooking meat for my mother'
Example #26:

    (14)   a.     Banana ba-mo-pheh-el-a         nama
    girls    AGR-OBJ-cook-APL meat
    `The girls are cooking meat for her'
Example #27:

    b.     Banana ba-e-pheh-el-a          `me
    girls   AGR-OBJ-cook-APL mother
    `The girls are cooking it for my mother
Example #28:

    (15)   a.     `Me    o-pheh-ets-w-e         nama
    mother AGR-cook-APL-PASS meat
    `The meat has been cooked for my mother'
Example #29:

    b.      Nama e-pheh-ets-w-e          `me
    meat AGR-cook-APL-PASS mother
    `The meat has been cooked for my mother'
Example #30:

    (ke-o-kwal-l-el-a)
    AGR-OBJ-close-APL-APL
    `I'm closing [it] up for you'
Example #31:

    (n-ka-e-kwal-l-a)
    AGR-POT-OBJ-close-APL
    `I can close it up'
Example #32:

    (u-e-rek-ets-w-e             ke mang)
    AGR-OBJ-buy-APL-PASS-PERF by whom
    `You were bought it by who?'
Example #33:

    (n-ngwathel-l-e )
    OBJ-feed-APL
    `Feed me [something]'
Example #34:

    (n-ngwathel-l-e dijo)
    OBJ-feed-APL food
    `Feed me some food'
Example #35:

    (ke-i-pat-el-a)
    AGR-RF-hide-APL
    `I'm hiding from myself'
Example #36:

    (o-pat-el-a      koko)
    AGR-hide-APL chicken
    `She's hiding from the chicken
Example #37:

    a.     ha    ke-w-el-e      mona
    NEG AGR-fall-APL ADV
    `I'm not falling down here'
Example #38:

    (wena o-math-el-a     mane Chabadimaketse kwana)
    you AGR-run-APL ADV Chabadimaketse ADV
    `You running over there to Chabidimaketse yonder'
Example #39:

    (ya masenke ke e-w-el-ang)
    of tin roof is REL/AGR-fall-APL-RL
    `The tin-roofed one is that which is falling down'
Example #40:

    (n-tl-el-e      ke-jetem-e)
    OBJ-leave-APL AGR-jump
    `Leave me alone so I can jump'
Example #41:

    (n-chak-el-e)
    OBJ-visit-APL
    `Pay me a visit'
Example #42:

    (ke-a-i-thobal-l-a)
    AGR-PRES-RF-sleep-APL
    `I'm going to sleep by myself'
Example #43:

    (ke-a-i-thol-el-a)
    AGR-PRES-RF-quiet-APL
    `I'm keeping myself quiet'
Example #44:

    (ke-o-qoq-el-e)
    AGR-OBJ-talk-APL
    `Shall I talk [about something] with you?'
Example #45:

    (n-ka-i-ngol-l-a           moo)
    AGR-POT-RF-write-APL ADV
    `I can write [something] by myself here'
Example #46:

    (a-mo-rek-el-a)
    AGR-OBJ-buy-APL
    `She should buy [them] for him'
Example #47:

    (a-rek-el-e    Namane)
    AGR-buy-APL Namane
    `She should buy [them] for Namane'
Example #48:

    (ke-tla-e-tabol-el-a)
    AGR-FUT-OBJ-tear-APL
    `I'll tear it up [for him]'
Example #49:

    (o-ngol-l-a      lengolo)
    AGR-write-APL letter
    `Are you writing a letter [for someone]?'
Example #50:

    (Ntselleng ha-re-tlo-ngol-l-a ka mona)
    Ntselleng let-AGR-FUR-write-APL in here
    `Ntselleng, let's write [a letter] in here'
Example #51:

    (o-tlis-ets-ang       pere mo)
    AGR-bring-APL-WH horse here
    `Why are you bring the horse here?'
Example #52:

    (o-le-thib-el-e)
    AGR-OBJ-prevent-APL
    `Might you stop it (from rolling)?'
Example #53:

    (ke-tla-e-tabol-el-a)
    AGR-FUT-OBJ-tear-APL
    `I'll tear it up [for him]'
Example #54:

    (o-e-pat-el-e         Ntselleng)
    AGR-OBJ-hide-APL Ntselleng
    `Are you hiding it [for someone], Ntselleng?'
Example #55:

    (wena o-math-el-a     mane Chabadimaketse kwana)
    you AGR-run-APL ADV Chabadimaketse ADV
    `You running over there to Chabidimaketse yonder'
Example #56:

    (e-pheh-ets-w-e         ke Mami)
    AGR-cook-APL-PASS-PERF by Mami
    `It was cooked by Mami'
Example #57:

    (u-e-rek-ets-w-e             ke mang)
    AGR-OBJ-buy-APL-PASS-PERF by who
    `You were bought it by who?'
Example #58:

    (e-fel-ets-w-e                    ke peterole)
    AGR-finish-APL-PASS-PERF by petrol
    `It (the car) is finished by peterol'