The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Halldór Ármann Sigurðsson (1992). THE CASE OF QUIRKY SUBJECTS.

URL: http://www.nordlund.lu.se/Nordwebb/personalkort/hsig/HalldorsHemsida/THE%20CASE%20OF%20QUIRKY%20SUBJECTS.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2978&langcode=isl (2021-12-03).


Example #1:

    (4)               r virast hafa veri kosnar.
    they(Npl.f) seem(3pl) have been elected(Npl.f)
    `They seem to have been elected.'
Example #2:

    b       Stelpunum var hjlpa.
    the girls(Dpl.f) was(3sg) helped(n.sg)
    `The girls were helped.'
Example #3:

    b       Ferunum seinkai.
    the journeys(D) was-delayed(3sg)
    `The journeys (were) delayed.'
Example #4:

    (7)                  eim er kalt.
    them(D) is(3sg) cold(n.sg)
    `They are freezing.'
Example #5:

    (8)                  eim virist hafa veri hjlpa.
    them(D) seems(3sg) have been helped(n.sg)
    `They seem to have been helped.'
Example #6:

    (9)     a        Okkur vantai vinnu.
    us(A) lacked(3sg) job(A)
    `We lacked/were in need a job.'
Example #7:

    (12)    a        Hana yrstir.                                       (monadic verb)
    her(A) thursts
    `She is thursty.'
Example #8:

    b        Henni lkuu hestarnir.                             (dyadic verb)
    her(D) liked the horses(N)
    `She liked the horses.'
Example #9:

    c        Henni var glatt.                                   (predicative adjective)
    her(D) was nauseated
    `She was nauseated.'
Example #10:

    d        Henni var engin vorkunn.                            (predicative noun)
    her(D) was no pity(N)
    `There was no reason to pity her.'
Example #11:

    e         Hennar var sakna.                                   (monadic passive)
    her(G) was missed
    `She was missed (by someone).'
Example #12:

    f         Henni voru gefnar bkurnar.                          (dyadic passive)
    her(D) were given the books(N).
    `She was given the books.'
Example #13:

    g         Henni er ekki bjandi.                              (present participle)
    her(D) is not inviting
    `She is not invitable.'
Example #14:

    h         Hana er hvergi a finna.                             (ergativized infinitive)
    her(A) is nowhere to find
    `She is nowhere to be found.'
Example #15:

    c         g tel [hana hafa s myndina].                      (ECM)
    I believe her(A) have seen the picture
    `I believe her to have seen the picture.'
Example #16:

    e       Hn vonast til [a PRO sj myndina].             (control)
    she hopes for to PRO(N) see the picture
    `She hopes to see the picture.'
Example #17:

    b       Hefur henni leist bkin?                        ("inversion")
    has her bored the book
    `Has she found the book boring?'
Example #18:

    e       Hn vonast til [a PRO leiast ekki bkin].      (control)
    she hopes for to PRO(D) bore not the book
    `She hopes not to find the book boring.'
Example #19:

    f       Hn var syfju og (henni) leiddist bkin.        (Conjunction Reduction)
    she was sleepy and (her) bored thebook
    `She was sleepy and found the book boring.'
Example #20:

    c        Henni gnar httan.
    her(D) terrifies the danger(N)
    `She is terrified/horrified by the danger.'
Example #21:

    b        Henni var hjlpa/bjarga/heilsa.
    her(D) was helped/rescued/greeted
    `She was helped/ rescued/greeted.'
Example #22:

    b        Hennar var sakna/leita/gtt.
    her(G) was missed/searched for/looked after
    `She was missed/searched for/looked after.'
Example #23:

    b       Vi eigum dttur og tveim rum yngri son.
    we have daughter(A) and two years(D) yonger son(A)
    `We have a daughter and a two years yonger son.'
Example #24:

    b       eim var hjlpa.
    them(D) was(3sg) helped(n.sg)
    `They were helped.'
Example #25:

    (21)            eim virtist [hafa veri hjlpa].
    them(D) seemed(3sg.) have been helped
    `They seemed to have been helped.'
Example #26:

    (22)            Vi tldum [eim hafa veri hjlpa].
    we believed(1pl) them(D) have been helped
    `We believed them to have been helped.'
Example #27:

    (24)            eir virtust [hafa veri astoair].
    they(Npl.m) seemed(3pl) have been aided(Npl.m)
    `They seemed to have been aided.'+
Example #28:

    (27)              Okkur hafi/*hfum batna.
    us(D) had(3sg/*1pl) recovered
    `We had recovered.'
Example #29:

    (29)              Strkar, hafi/*hfu/*hfu ekki veri dansa vi ykkur?
    boys(N) had(3sg/*3pl/*2pl) not been danced with you
    `You guyes, had nobody danced with you (by then)?'
Example #30:

    (30)              Okkur hfu veri sagar sgurnar ur.
    us(D) had(3pl.) been told the stories(N) before
    `We had been told the stories before.'
Example #31:

    b        Uns wurde geholfen.                                       (German)
    us(D) was(3sg) helped
    `We were helped (by someone).'
Example #32:

    (35)    a        Mr hafi leist.
    me(D) had(3sg) bored
    `I had been bored.'
Example #33:

    b        Mr hfu leist fyrirlestrarnir.
    me(D) had(3pl) bored the lectures(N)
    `I had found the lectures boring.'
Example #34:

    b        a hafi veri stoli einum stl.
    there had been stolen one chair
    `There had been one chair stolen.'
Example #35:

    (46)    a       Hfu stlarniri virst [ti vera drir]?
    had(3pl) the chairs(N) seemed be expensive
    `Had the chair seemed to be expensive?'
Example #36:

    (47)    a        Hfu r virst [stlarnir vera drir]?
    had(3pl) you(D) seemed the chairs(N) be expensive
    `Had it seemed to you that the chairs were expensive?'
Example #37:

    b        ... a okkur var hjlpa.                             (Icelandic)
    that us(D) was(3sg) helped
    `... that we were helped.'
Example #38:

    b        Vi vonuumst til [a vera hjlpa].                 (Icelandic)
    we hoped for to be helped
    `We hoped to be helped.'