The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

C.-T. James Huang and Masao Ochi (2003). Syntax of the Hell.

URL: http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~ctjhuang/Course_LSA222/readings/Huang_Ochi.2004.hell.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3014&langcode=jpn (2022-01-26).


Example #1:

    (28)    a.    kare-wa ittai nani-o katta no?
    he-top ittai what-acc bought Q
    `What the hell did you buy?
Example #2:

    (30)    a.    kare-wa Hanako-ga ittai nani-o katta ka sira-nai.
    he-top Hanako-nom ittai what-acc bought Q know-neg
    `He does not know what the hell Hanako bought.'
Example #3:

    (31)    a.    ittai Taro-wa Hanako-ga kimi-ni nani-o okutta to omotta no?
    ittai Taro-top Hanako-nom you-dat what-acc sent that thought Q
    `What the hell did Taro think that Hanako sent to you?'
Example #4:

    (32)    a.    ittai kimi-wa [Hanako-ga dare-ni ageta hon]-o yonda no?
    ittai you-top Hanako-nom who-dat gave book-acc read Q
    Who the hell is the x s.t. you read the book that Hanko gave to x?
Example #5:

    (33)    a.   *ittai kimi-wa [Hanako-ga naze kaita hon]-o yonda no?
    ittai you-top Hanako-nom why wrote book-acc read Q
    What the hell is the reason x s.t. you read the book that Hanko wrote for x?
Example #6:

    (34)    a.      kare-wa ittai yoku nani-o kau no?
    he-top ittai often what-acc buy Q
    `What the hell does he often buy?'
Example #7:

    (35)     kimi-ga yonda no wa [Chomsky-no ittai nani-ni tuite-no hon] desu ka?
    you-nom read C top Chomsky-gen ittai what-dat about-gen book be Q
    `(lit.) About what the hell book of Chomsky's is it that you read?'
Example #8:

    kattta ka tazuneta no?
    bought Q asked     Q
    `About what the hell book of Chomsky's did Taro ask whether you bought?'
Example #9:

    (37)     a.    ?*Taro-sika nani-o     tyuumon-shi-na-katta no?
    Taro-only what-acc order-do-neg-past         Q
    What is the thing x s.t. only Taro ordered x
Example #10:

    (38)     a.     kimi-wa piza-sika naze tyuumon-shi-na-katta no?
    you-top pizza-sika why order-do-neg-past Q
    `Why did you order only pizza?
Example #11:

    (39)     a.     kimi-wa piza-sika ittai naze tyuumon-shi-nak-atta no?
    you-top pizza-sika ittai why order-do-neg-past    Q
    `Why the hell did you order only pizza?'
Example #12:

    c.       kimi-wa ittai dono hon-o     yomi-tai no?
    you-top ittai which book-acc read-want Q
    `Which the hell book do you want to read?'
Example #13:

    c.      kimi-wa ittai sono hon-o    katta no? (kaw-anak-atta no?)
    you-top ittai that book-acc bought Q buy-not-past Q
    `Did you buy that book or not?'
Example #14:

    (i)       Taro to Jiro to Hiroshi no uti,        kimi-wa ittai dono hito-ga     suki-na no?
    Taro and Jiro and Hiroshi gen among you-nom ittai which man-nom fond-be Q
    `(lit.) Among Taro, Jiro, and Hiroshi, which the hell man do you like most?'