The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Dieter Wunderlich (2001). Argument linking in Japanese -- some facts and suggestions.

URL: http://user.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/~wdl/Japanese.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3029&langcode=jpn (2022-01-26).


Example #1:

    (1)   a. Boku-kara sono sake-o              nom-u.
    I-ABL          this sake-ACC drink-PRES
    `I am beginning now to drink the sake.'
Example #2:

    b. Ken-kara       sono sake-o         non-da.
    Ken-ABL        this sake-ACC drink-PAST
    `Ken was the first who started drinking sake.'
Example #3:

    c. Boku-ni soo iw-are temo.
    I-DAT      so      say-PASS even.if
    `Even if it is told me so.'
Example #4:

    (2)      a. Takao-ga musume-ni         tikayot-ta
    Takao-NOM daughter-DAT approach-PAST
    `Takao approached my/his daughter.'
Example #5:

    b. Musume-ga      Takao-ni    tikayor-are-ta
    daughter-NOM Takao-BY approach-PASS-PAST
    `My daughter was approached by Takao.'    (Washio 1995: 35)
Example #6:

    Tanaka-kyoozyu-ga/wa gakusei-tati-ni kiraw-are-te              i-ru.
    Tanaka-prof-NOM/TOP student-PL-BY hate-PASS-CONT               be-PRES
    `Prof. Tanaka is hated by the students.'
Example #7:

    yom-are-te          i-ru.
    read-PASS-CONT be-PRES
    `Prof. Tanaka is affected by the students having read all his books.'
Example #8:

    yom-are-te         i-ru
    read-PASS-CONT be-PRES
    `Prof. Tanaka is such that his books have been read well by the students.'
Example #9:

    (6)   a. Takao-ga sensei-ni          musuko-o home-rare-ta
    Takao-NOM teacher-DAT son-ACC             admire-PASS-PAST
    `Takao was affected by the teacher admiring his son.' (Washio 1995: 61)
Example #10:

    sir-are-te        i-ru
    know-PASS-CONT be-PRES
    `That painting is such that many people know its name.' (Ono 1988)
Example #11:

    c. Sono tatemono-ga/wa ...        sono kentikuka-o ...
    that building-nom/top ...      that architect-ACC ...
    `That building is such that many people know its architect.'
Example #12:

    Sono hone-wa            ...    hakkensya-o          ...
    that bone-TOP           ...    discoverer-ACC       ...
    `That bone is such that many people know its discoverer.'
Example #13:

    tutae-rare-te     i-ru.
    inform-PASS-CONT be-PRES
    `That building is such that the students are informed about the architect.'
Example #14:

    (7)   a. John-ga     Mary-ni       tokei-o       nusum-ase-ta.
    John-NOM Mary-DAT watch-ACC             steal-CAUS-PAST
    `John had Mary steal a watch.'
Example #15:

    b. John-ga     Mary-ni       tokei-o       nusum-are-ta.
    John-NOM Mary-DAT watch-ACC             steal-PASS-PAST
    `John had a watch stolen by Mary.'
Example #16:

    (9)   a. Hanako-ga/wa       asi-ga     naga-i.
    Hanako-NOM/TOP leg-NOM long-PRES
    `Hanako, her legs are long.' (Hasegawa 2001: (36a))
Example #17:

    b. Takao-ga musuko-ga syussesi-ta.
    Takao-NOM son-NOM         succeed (in life)-PAST
    `Takao, his son succeeded in life.' (Washio)
Example #18:

    (12) a. John ga      asi-ga         koteis-are-te i-ta.
    John-NOM foot-NOM fix-PASS-CONT be-PAST
    `John had his foot tied (to something).'
Example #19:

    b. ?? John ga asi-ga           hum-are-te         i-ta.
    John-NOM foot-NOM stomp-PASS-CONT be-PAST
    `John had his foot stomped on.'
Example #20:

    (14) a. Kyoko-ga/wa      sono hitokoto-ni        kimoti-o     nagom-ase-ta.
    Kyoko-NOM        that one=word-DAT feeling-ACC calm-CAUSE-PAST
    `Kyoko got her  feelings calmed by that word.'        (Hasegawa (18a))
Example #21:

    (??hare-sase-ta )
    `Kyoko got her heart spoiled by that story.' (??cleared)
Example #22:

    c. Kyoko-ga ziko-de              kodomo-o sin-ase-ta
    K.-NOM      accident-INSTR child-ACC die-CAUS-PAST
    `Kyoko got her child killed in/by an accident'
Example #23:

    (16) Kyoko-no kimoti-ga          sono hitokoto-ni nagon-da.
    Kyoko-GEN feeling-NOM       that one=word-BY calm-PAST
    `Kyoko's feelings calm with that word.'     (Hasegawa 2001: (26a))
Example #24:

    (17) Taroo-ga    Takao-ni     musume-ni      tikayor-are-ta.
    Taro-NOM Takao-DAT daughter-DAT approach-PASS-PAST
    `Taro was affected by Takao's approaching his daughter.'
Example #25:

    `Mariko was affected by her mother-in-law letting her child play late.'
Example #26:

    osoku made yom-ase-rare-ta
    late until read-CAUS-PASS-PAST
Example #27:

    a. Obasan-ga Noriko-o/ni Yoshiki-ni aw-as(as)e-ta
    aunt-NOM N.-ACC/DAT Y.-DAT             meet-CAUS-PAST
    `The aunt let Noriko meet Yoshiki.'
Example #28:

    a. Noriko-wa       ozisan-ni     kodomo-o obasan-ni aw-as(as)e-rare-ta
    N.TOP           uncle-DAT child-ACC aunt-DAT            meet-CAUS-PASS-PAST
    `Noriko was     affected by the uncle having let her child meet the aunt.'
Example #29:

    (22) a. Mary-ni-wa      John-ga      sono hon-o age-ta.
    Mary-DAT-TOP John-NOM that book-ACC give-PAST
    `As for Mary, John gave her the book.'
Example #30:

    b. Sono hon-wa         John-ga      Mary-ni       age-ta.
    that book-TOP John-NOM Mary-DAT                give-PAST
    `As for the book, John gave it to Mary.'
Example #31:

    c. John-wa Mary-ga        nagut-ta.
    John-TOP Mary-NOM hit-PAST
    `As for John, Mary hit him.'
Example #32:

    (23) a. ? John-ga      Mary-ga      nagut-ta.
    John-NOM       Mary-NOM hit-PAST
    `John, Mary   hit.'
Example #33:

    b. Tokyo-ga       jinko-ga           oi
    Tokyo-NOM      population-NOM be.much
    `Tokyo, the   population is much.'
Example #34:

    (24) a. ??John-ga Taro-ga        Mary-ni     syookai-si-ta.
    John-NOM Taro-NOM Mary-DAT introduction-do-PAST
    `John, Taro introduced him to Mary.'
Example #35:

    b. ??Mary-ga Taro-ga        John-o      syookai-si-ta.
    Mary-NOM Taro-NOM John-ACC introduction-do-PAST
    `Mary, Taro introduced John to her.'
Example #36:

    `It is Mary to whom John introduced Taro.'
Example #37:

    `It is John whom Taro introduced to Mary.'
Example #38:

    Düsseldorf-wa rokugatsu-ga ichiban ame-ga              horu.
    D.-TOP         June-NOM           most      rain-NOM   fall.PRES
    `As for Düsseldorf, it rains most in June.'