The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Leston Chandler Buell (2005). Issues in Zulu Verbal Morphosyntax.

URL: http://fizzylogic.com/users/bulbul/school/buell-dissertation-single-space.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3198&langcode=zul (2021-06-18).


Example #1:

    (8)   i- zincwadi
    10- 10.books
Example #2:

    (9)     u- ku- cula
    15- 15- sing
    "to sing"
Example #3:

    b. u- ku- bamb- el- a, u- ku- banj- el-                            w- a
    15- 15- grab-        APPL- FV      , 15- 15- grab- A P P L - P S V- F V
    "to grab for, to be grabbed for"
Example #4:

    c. u- ku- bamb- is- a, u- ku- banj- is-                             w- a
    15- 15- grab-        C AU S - F V   , 15- 15- grab- C AU S - P S V- F V
    "to make/help grab, to be made/helped to grab"
Example #5:

    (95)    a.    B-       enza- ni        phandle?
    2.S B J- do-      what outside
    "What are they doing outside?"
Example #6:

    Ngi- ba-            bon- ile be-             nga- cul- i.
    1 S . S B J- 2 . O B J- see- P E R F 2 . S B J- N E G- sing- N E G
    "I saw them not singing."
Example #7:

    U-       ya- cul- a .
    1 . S B J- ya- sing- F V
    "She sings."
Example #8:

    c. e-        nge- mncane,                    ...nga...
    1.sbj- neg- 1.small=neg
    "she not being small"
Example #9:

    d. e-        nga- se- mncane,                      ...ngese...
    1.sbj- neg- dur- 1.small=neg
    "she not being small anymore"
Example #10:

    (239)    a. S-           a- wu-             bon- a.               Sawubonani.
    1 P. S B J - P S T- 2 S . O B J - see- F V
    "Hello." (Addressing one person. Literally, "We saw you.")
Example #11:

    b. S-           a- ni-             bon- a- ( ni ).
    1 P. S B J - P S T- 2 P. O B J - see- F V 2 P
    "Hello." (Addressing two or more people. Literally, "We saw you.")
Example #12:

    (247)   Cul- a- ni kahle!
    sing- F V- 2 P well
    "Sing well!"
Example #13:

    (289)     Ku-         cul- e          u- mntwana.
    1 7 . S B J - sing- P E R F 1- 1.child
    "A child sang."
Example #14:

    b. no-       Sipho u-            *( wa-         ) dl- ile.
    and:1- 1.Sipho 1 . S B J -        6 . O B J - eat- P E R F
    (lit. "I ate two apples, and Sipho ate them, too.")
Example #15:

    b. A- bantwana ba-            phuz- e       u- bisi.    (Zulu short recent past)
    2- 2.children 2.S B J- drink- P E R F 14- 14.milk
    "Children drank MILK (not water)."
Example #16:

    i- sikole
    7- 7.school
Example #17:

    U- mfana u-             zo- fund- a i- ncwadi.
    1- 1.boy      1 . S B J - F U T- study- F V 9- 9.book
    "The boy will study the book."
Example #18:

    I- ncwadi i-              zo- fund- a u- mfana.
    9- 9.book        9 . S B J - F U T- study- F V 1- 1.boy
    ( "The book will be studied by the boy.")
Example #19:

    I- ncwadi i-            zo- fund- w- a ( ng- u- mfana ).
    9- 9.book     9 . S B J - F U T- study- P S V- F V by- 1- 1.boy
    "The book will be studied by the boy."
Example #20:

    b.    [ i- mali      ]i yo-      ku- sebenz- el-         a (* a- bantwana ) t       i
    9- 9.money      9.of:15- 15- work-       APPL- FV       2- 2.child
    "money (for children) to work for"
Example #21:

    2- 2.child         2 . S B J- sing- F V 2.all
    "The children are all singing."
Example #22:

    10- 10.song        2- 2.child            2 . S B J- 1 0 . O B J - sing- F V 10.all
    "The songs, the children are singing them all."