The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Joachim Sabel and Jochen Zeller (2006). wh-Question Formation in Nguni.

URL: http://www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/35/paper1316.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3242&langcode=zul (2021-06-18).


Example #1:

    (2) a.     Y-ini         o-yi-bona-yo?
    COP-what9 RC2ndSG-OC9-see-RS
    'What is it that you see?'
Example #2:

    b.   Ng-ubani o-m-bona-yo?
    COP-who1a RC2ndSG-OC1a-see-RS
    'Who is it that you see?'
Example #3:

    (3) a.     *Ubani u-banga lowo msindo?
    who1a SP1a-cause DEM3 noise3
    'Who is making that noise?'
Example #4:

    b.   *Ubani u-ya-shay-wa?
    who1a SP1a-FOC-beat-PASS
    'Who is beaten?'
Example #5:

    (4) a.     Ng-ubani o-banga           lowo msindo?
    COP-who1a RC1a-cause DEM3 noise3
    'Who is it that is making that noise?'
Example #6:

    b.   Ng-ubani o-shay-wa-yo?
    COP-who1a RC1a-beat-PASS-Rs
    'Who is it that is beaten?'
Example #7:

    c.    Ng-ubani o-fikile?
    COP-who1a RC1a-arrived
    'Who arrived?'
Example #8:

    (10) a.    Abafana ba-ya-sebenza.
    boy2 SP2-FOC-work
    'The boys are WORKING.'
Example #9:

    b.   Abafana ba-sebenza kakhulu.
    boy2    SP2-work a.lot
    'The boys are working A LOT.'
Example #10:

    (11) a. *Abafana ba-sebenza.
    boy2        SP2-work
    'The BOYS are working.'
Example #11:

    b. Ng-abafana aba-sebenza-yo.
    COP-boy2 RC2-work-RS
    'It is the boys who are working.'
Example #12:

    (12) a.   [CP U-cabanga [CP ukuthi uBev u-thenge       ini]]?
    2ndSG-think that Bev1a SP1a-bought what9
    'What do you think Bev bought?'
Example #13:

    b.   [CP Y-ini      o-cabanga [CP ukuthi uBev u-yi-thengile ___]]?
    COP-what9 RC2ndSG-think that     Bev1a SP1a-OC9-bought
    'What do you think Bev bought?'
Example #14:

    c.   [CP U-cabanga [CP ukuthi y-ini      a-yi-thengile-yo    uBev ___]]?
    2ndSG-think that COP-what9 RC1a-OC9-bought-RS Bev1a
    'What do you think Bev bought?'
Example #15:

    b. [CP U-cabanga [CP ukuthi [TP ku-sebenze [P bani]]]]?
    2ndSG-think    that       EXPL-worked who1a
    'Who do you think worked?'
Example #16:

    (14)        [CP U-cabanga [CP ukuthi ba-the       [CP uPeter u-sebenzile]]].
    2ndSG-think that       3rdPL-said      Peter1a SP1a-worked
    'You think that they said Peter worked.'
Example #17:

    c.   [CP U-cabanga [CP ukuthi ba-the [CP ng-ubani ___ o-sebenzile]]]?
    2ndSG-think that 3rdPL-said COP-who1a           RC1a-worked
    'Who do you think they said worked?'
Example #18:

    (21) a.    [Y-indoda o-cabanga         [ ukuthi uBev u-yi-bonile ___ ]].
    COP-man9 RC2ndSG-think that         Bev1a SP1a-Oc9-saw
    'It was the man who you think that Bev saw.'
Example #19:

    b.   [U-cabanga [ ukuthi y-indoda uBev a-yi-bonile-yo ___ ]].
    2ndSG-think that COP-man9 Bev RC1a-OC9-saw-RS
    'You think that it was the man that Bev saw.'
Example #20:

    (22) a.    *[U-cabanga ukuthi [y-ini         ng-umama       abantwana aba-m-nike      yona]]?
    2ndSG-think that   COP-what9 COP-mother1a child2         RC2-OC1a-gave it9
    'What do you think that the children gave to MOTHER?'
Example #21:

    b.   *[U-cabanga ukuthi [y-imali         ng-ubani abantwana aba-m-nike       yona]]?
    2ndSG-think that   COP-money9 COP-who1a child2          RC2-OC1a-gave it9
    'To whom do you think the children gave the MONEY?'
Example #22:

    (23) a.     UThandi u-ng-umfazi.
    Thandi1a SP1a-COP-woman1
    'Thandi is a woman.'
Example #23:

    b.   UThemba u-y-indoda.
    Themba1a SP1a-COP-man9
    'Themba is a man.'