The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Sabine Zerbian (2006). Expression of information structure in the Bantu language Northern Sotho.

URL: http://www.zas.gwz-berlin.de/mitarb/homepage/zerbian/ZASdiss.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3256&langcode=nso (2021-06-13).


Example #1:

    (46)      a.     Go fihla ba-eti.
    C L 17 arrive C L2-guest
    `There are guests arriving.'
Example #2:

    a. Ke kw-ele mo-kgala:bje.
    1 hear-P S T C L1-old.man
    `I heard the old man.'
Example #3:

    b. Ke mo kw-e:le mo-kgala:bje.
    1 C L1 hear-P S T C L1-old.man
    Lit. `I heard him, the old man.'
Example #4:

    d.    Ba-nna ba soma mo.
    C L 2-man C L 2 work here
    `The men are working here.'
Example #5:

    c. O nagana gore mo-sadi          yo         o utsw-itse se-supanako bjang?
    2 think that C L1-woman D E M . C L1 C L1 steal-P S T C L7-watch how
    `How do you think that this woman stole the watch?'                (QUIS)
Example #6:

    a. *O bona neng mo-sadi?
    2 see when C L1-woman
    Intended: `When do you see the woman?'
Example #7:

    (38)      a.    [O direga eng ka mo-nna le se-notlelo?
    2 do      what with C L1-man and C L7-key
    `What are you doing with the man and the key?']
Example #8:

    a. (i) [O mema mang?
    2 invite who
    `Who do you invite?']
Example #9:

    b.   (i)    [O rema eng mosegare?
    2 chop what midday
    `What do you chop at day?']
Example #10:

    c.   (i)    [O nwa eng labone?
    2 drink what four.times
    `What do you drink for the fourth time?']
Example #11:

    a. (i) [O dira eng bjale?
    2 do what now
    `What are you doing now?']
Example #12:

    (51)     a.   (i)    [O bala nonwane?
    2 read C L9.story
    `Are you reading a story?']
Example #13:

    b.   (i)    [O rema mo-rula          neng?
    2 chop C L3-marula when
    `When do you chop the marula tree?']
Example #14:

    (52)     a.  O nyaka mang?
    2 look.for who
    `Who are you looking for?'
Example #15:

    a. (i) [O dira eng bjale?
    2 do what now
    `What are you doing now?']
Example #16:

    d.   (i)    [O dira eng ka mo-rwalo?
    2 do what with C L3-load
    `What are you doing with the load?']
Example #17:

    (iii) *Ke a ja namune.
    1 eat C L9.orange
    `I am eating an orange.'
Example #18:

    (ii) Ke a [nwa]F .
    1 -A- drink
    `I am drinking.'
Example #19:

    (3)     a.   (i)    Ke bona gago:lo.
    1 see well
    `I am seeing well.'
Example #20:

    (ii)   Ke fa mo-ratho di-apa:ro.
    1 give C L1-brother C L8-cloth
    `I give the brother clothes.'
Example #21:

    b.    (i)         Ke a bo:na.
    1 -A- see
    `I am seeing.'
Example #22:

    (iii) Ke a bo:na.
    `I am seeing.'
Example #23:

    a. (i) O thusa mang?
    2 help who
    `Who do you help?'
Example #24:

    (ii)   Aowa, ke thus-etse [mo-kgalabje]F .
    no     1 help-P S T C L1-old.man
    `No, I helped the O L D M A N.'
Example #25:

    b.   (i)    Naa o dula toropo-ng         na?
    QP 2 live C L9.town-L O C QP
    `Are you living in town?'
Example #26:

    (ii)   Aowa, ke dula [polase-ng]F .
    no     1 live C L9.farm-L O C
    `No, I am living on A FA R M.'
Example #27:

    a. Go fihla mang?
    Ke mang a fihla-ng?
    `Who is arriving?'
Example #28:

    b. *Go ngwala mang lengwalo?
    Ke mang a ngwalang lengwalo?
    Intended: `Who is writing a letter?'