The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

PETER K. AUSTIN (2002). Causative and applicative constructions in Australian Aboriginal Languages.

URL: http://www.hrelp.org/aboutus/staff/peter_austin/AustinCausatives.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3273&langcode=dif (2021-09-24).


Example #1:

    (1)    Karna             wapa-yi             wilha-nhi.
    man               go-pres             woman-loc
    `The man is going with the woman.'
Example #2:

    (2)    Karna-li            wilha              wapa-lka-yi.
    man-erg             woman              go-tr-pres
    `The man takes the woman.'
Example #3:

    (3)    Kupa                punthi-rna                warrayi.
    child               separate- ptcple          aux
    `The children separated.'
Example #4:

    (4)    Karna-li            kupa               punthi-ipa-rna              warrayi.
    man-erg             child              separate-tr-ptcple          aux
    `The man separated the children.'
Example #5:

    (5)     Pirta            tharka-yi.
    stick            stand- pres
    `The stick is standing.'
Example #6:

    (6)     Karna-li         pirta          tharka-lka-yi.
    man-erg          stick          stand-tr-pres
    `The man is standing with a stick.'
Example #7:

    (7)     Karna-li         pirta          tharka-ipa-yi.
    man-erg          stick          stand-tr-pres
    `The man stands the stick up.'
Example #8:

    (8)     Kupa         palipali-rna         warrayi.
    child        drown-ptcple         aux
    `The child drowned.'
Example #9:

    (9)     Karna-li         kupa          palipali-ma-rna          warrayi.
    man-erg          child         drown-tr-ptcple          aux
    `The man drowned the child.'
Example #10:

    (10) Karna-li            wilha            nandra-ipa-yi             (ngakarni).
    man-erg             woman            hit-alt-pres                I dat
    `The man hit the woman for me.'
Example #11:

    (11) Kupa              tharka-ipa-ipa-mayi             (ngakarni).
    child             stand-tr-alt-imper:emph           I dat
    `Stand the child up for me.'