The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Melanie Green and Chris H. Reintges (2005). Syntactic conditions on special inflection.

URL: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/linguistics/documents/mg-cr_special_inflection.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3292&langcode=hau (2021-06-22).


Example #1:

    b. me• ya]ra      sukaś        ce•?
    what children 3PL.REL-PERF say
    `what did the children say?'
Example #2:

    b. wa•• za]i         shžga rÍjžyaģ naśn?
    who FUT.3SG.M enter well         DEM
    `who will enter this well?' (Newman 2000:584)
Example #3:

    b. *muna• fa	a [ sauwaģ mo	a• ce    yaś                 saya• manaś ]
    1PL.IMPF hope new.of        car   FM.SG.F     3SG.M.SUBJ buy IO.1PL
    `we hope he buys a new car for us' (Tuller 1986a: 70)
Example #4:

    b. aślhaśzai ne• ya            fi    kya]u    suś     taśfi du	seśn          ņģfa
    pilgrims FM.PL 3 SG.M.REL-PF exceed goodness 3PL.SUBJ go mountain.of Arafat
    `it is much better for the pilgrims to go to Mount Arafat' (Newman 2001:191)
Example #5:

    c. kowaśneś ya
o• yana•      so] yaś          aśuri Kaśnde
    every     boy 3SG.M.IMPF want 3SG.M.SUBJ marry Kande
    `every boy wants to marry Kande' (Green & Jaggar 2003:201 (43a))
Example #6:

    (11) a. su-wa•ne (ne•) sukaś                  saśyi baįaģ      mo	a•@
    3PL-who FM.PL 3PL.REL.PERF buy black.of car
    `who (plural) bought a black car?'H
Example #7:

    b. Kaśnde ce•        [waddaś     nake•          so] ]
    `Kande is the one I love'
Example #8:

    (16) a. yaśushe ne•                            zuwa•?
    when      FM.SG.M     3PL.REL-IMPF come
    `when is it they are coming?' H (Jaggar 2001: 518)
Example #9:

    (17) a. ta               ya•ya kukaś      sa•mi wurin shžga?                           (manner)
    by.means.of how 2PL.PERF find way                 enter
    `how did you find a way to get in?' H (Newman 2000: 492)
Example #10:

    (28) a. [fafia• manaś gaskiya ] take•                        (yŰ).
    tell   IO.1PL   truth        3SG.F.REL.IMPF        do
    `it was telling us the truth she was doing' H (Newman 2000: 193)
Example #11:

    (30) a. *su-wa•     sun         saśyi baįaģ      mo	a•@
    who (PL) 3PL.PERF buy black.of car
    `Who (pl) bought a black car?'
Example #12:

    (31) a. kin                                      ga daś wa•daś wa• aś makaranta• ?
    2SG.F.PERF see who.PL                    at school
    `whom did you see at school?'
Example #13:

    b. me• ya         yŰ ?
    what 3SG.M.PERF do
    `what did he do?' H (Kraft & Kirk-Greene 1973: 114)
Example #14:

    (32) a. suna•                                  žna      yaśnzu?
    3PL.IMPF where now
    `Where are they now?H (Jaggar 2001: 522)
Example #15:

    b. kuna•      dŗ me• ?
    2SG.M.PERF with what
    `what do you have?' (Newman 2000: 494)
Example #16:

    (33) a. suna•      fito]wa       daśgaś žna ?
    3PL.IMPF come.out.VN from where
    `where are they coming out from? (Newman 2000: 496)
Example #17:

    b. ya   taśfi yaśushe?
    3SG.M go when
    `when did he go?' (Newman 2000: 496)
Example #18:

    (34) a. ana•          sayaģ daś ita       kaśmaģ nawaś?
    INDEF.IMPF   sell with 3SG.F about how.much
    `about how much is it sold for?' (Jaggar, to appear: 6)
Example #19:

    b. an        ba kaś         dala• nawaś?
    INDEF.PERF   give IO.2SG.M. dollar how.many
    `how many dollars did they give you?' (Newman 2000: 496)
Example #20:

    c. na     gaya• makaś     saśu nawaś?
    1SG.PERF tell       2SG.M.IO time how.many
    `how many times have I told you?' (Jaggar 2001: 523)
Example #21:

    (41) Q: su-wa• sukaś               taśfi Amžģkaś?
    3PL-who 3PL.REL.PERF go America
    `who went to America?'
Example #22:

    A: su Audu ś daś Musa sukaś            (*sun)    taśfi
    3PL Audu and Musa 3PL.REL.PERF 3PL.PERF go
    `Audu and Musa went' (Adapted from Green & Jaggar (2003: 197, (30))
Example #23:

    (42) Q: waśneś kaya kikaś         ma]nta?
    which things 2SG.F REL.PERF forget
    `which things did you forget?'
Example #24:

    (44) A: ka           aika• daś takaśģda]ģ?
    2SG.M.PERF send with paper.DD
    `Did you send the paper?'
Example #25:

    (47) Q: žna    zuwa•?
    where go.VN
    `where are you going?'
Example #26:

    A: za]n    taśfi gida ne•
    FUT .1SG   go house FM.SG.M
    `I'm going home' (Jaggar, to appear: 8)
Example #27:

    (48) a. kin            ga wa• aś ka•suwa?
    2SG.F.PERF see who at market
    `you saw who in the market?' (Jaggar 2001: 523)
Example #28:

    b. za kaś taśfi žna?
    FUT 2SG.M    go   where
    `you're going where?' (Jaggar 2001: 523)
Example #29:

    (61) a. waśceś      ya
inya• ka                ce•      ta        raśsu]?
    which(F) girl      2SG.M.REL-PERF say 3SG.F.PERF die
    `which girl did you say had died?'
Example #30:

    (62) a. aśyukaśri     kuśwa,    sanyÍ dai,       ya             gama•    daś    itai
    goat.DD.F TOP-PCL cold        TOP-PCL   3SG.M.PERF      finish   with   3SG.F
    `The goat, well the cold, it finished it off.' (Newman 2000: 617)
Example #31:

    b. *Auduś ne        go
a ce•        za]n       nu
a• waś
    Audu       FM.SG.M   farm   FM.SG.F   FUT.1S G   show   IOM
    `I'll show the farm to Audu' (Adapted from Jaggar 2001: 500)
Example #32:

    b. ņli, mun    san [ wa• za]i                         aśura ∂ aśure    taś ]
    Ali 1PL.PERF know who            FUT.3SG.M         marry / marry 3SG.F
    `As for Ali, we know who (he) will marry (her)' (Tuller 1986: 55 (70)).
Example #33:

    b. muta•ne]n sun   tsaya• [ ce]wa Kaśndei ce•                            suke•            so] ]
    men         3PL.PERF insist COMP             Kande FM.SG.F             3PL.REL-IMPERF   love
    `The men insisted that it is Kande they love.'
Example #34:

    c. Auduś ne          fialžbÍ   (ba•    Baśla ba)
    Audu FM.SG.M student.M NEG            Bala NEG
    `Audu is a student' (not Bala)
Example #35:

    (66) a. aśrawośn,     wa• ya                     kashe• shi
    thief.DD.M who 3SG.M.REL-PERF            kill       3SG.M
    `As for the thief, who killed him?'
Example #36:

    (75) a. waśceś      ya
inya• ka                 ce•       ta           raśsu]?
    which(F) girl       2SG.M.REL-PERF say 3SG.F.PERF die
    `which girl did you say had died?'
Example #37:

    (79) a. Auduś daś Musa sun           so         [ suś         saśyi me• ]?
    Audu and Musa 3PL.PERF want               3PL.SUBJ buy        what
    `what did Audu and Musa want to buy?'
Example #38:

    b. Auduś daś Musa sun   neśmi [ suś                      saśyi me• ]?
    Audu and Musa 3PL.PERF try                3PL.SUBJ buy what
    `what did Audu and Musa try to buy?'
Example #39:

    (81) a. *na         ce] [me• yaś            yŰ ]
    1SG.PERF say what 3SG.M.SUBJ do
    `I said what he should do' (Tuller 1986: 69)
Example #40:

    b. *muna• fa	a [ sauwaģ mo	a• ce     yaś                    saya• manaś ]
    1PL.IMPF hope new.of         car    FM.SG.F       3SG.M.SUBJ buy IO.1PL
    `we hope he buys a new car for us' (Tuller 1986a: 70 (94c))
Example #41:

    (83)    wa• ya                      saśyi   me•
    who 3SG.M.REL-PERF buy             what
    ?`who bought WHAT?!' (echo reading of the wh-in situ phrase)
Example #42:

    (95) waścce      ce•   daśgaś cikin-suś         ta            mutuś?
    which.one.f FM.f from among-them 2fs.REL.PF die
    `Which among them died?'          (Newman 2000: 495)