The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Waltraud Paul (2002). Sentence-internal Topics in Mandarin Chinese.

URL: http://www.ling.sinica.edu.tw/publish/LL3.4-03-Paul-paper.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3410&langcode=cmn (2021-09-24).


Example #1:

    (2) Ni     kunqu            hui      bu    hui?
    2SG Kunqu.opera know NEG know
    `Do you know how to sing the Kunqu-opera?'
Example #2:

    (7) Ta     lian    gourou        ye/dou      chi
    3SG even       dog:meat also/all         eat
    `He even eats dogmeat.'
Example #3:

    (8) Ta     lian    wo/Zhangsan ye/dou                 qing-le
    3SG even       1SG/Zhangsan also/all              invite -PERF
    `He invited even me/Zhangsan.'
Example #4:

    (i) Lian gourou          ta     ye/dou        chi
    even dog.meat 3SG           also/all      eat
    `He even eats dogmeat.'
Example #5:

    b. Lian Zhangsan ye/dou              yao     lai      ma?
    even Zhangsan also/all            want    come PART
    `Does even Zhangsan want to       come   ?'    (= Paris' 1998, (7)-(8))
Example #6:

    (i) Wo Li laoshi mei jiandao, Wang laoshi dao                 shi jiandao-le
    1SG Li teacher NEG see            Wang laoshi actually be see-PERF
    `I did not see teacher Li, (but) teacher Wang I actually did see.'
Example #7:

    b. Wo lian Xiaowang          ye/dou      bu    renshi
    1SG even Xiaowang         also/all    NEG know
    `I don't even know Xiaowang.'
Example #8:

    (14) a. *Wo-de       pengyou ta        renshi
    1SG-SUB friend        3SG know
    (intended meaning: `My friends know him.')
Example #9:

    b. Wo-de pengyou lian ta            ye/dou   renshi
    1SG-SUB friend     even 3SG also/all      know
    `My friends know even him.'
Example #10:

    (15) zhei-ge xuesheng, wo xihuan, nei-ge , wo bu xihuan
    this-CL student       1SG like      that-CL 1SG NEG like
    `This student I like, that one I don't.'
Example #11:

    (16) Wo cai            chi-le,     fan hai mei chi
    1SG vegetables eat-PERF rice yet NEG eat
    `I have already eaten the vegetables, but not the rice.'
Example #12:

    (17) Wo yi-pian lunwen keyi yingfu, liang-pian jiu bu            xing      le
    1SG 1-CL       article can assume 2-CL            then NEG possible PART
    `One article, I can handle, but two is impossible.'
Example #13:

    (18) a. Ni zuoye          xie-wan-le         mei?
    2SG homework write-finish-PERF NEG
    `Have you finished your homework?'
Example #14:

    b. Wo (zuoye)        zaojiu     xie-wan-le
    1SG homework long:ago write-finish-PERF
    `I finished (my homework) already a while ago.'
Example #15:

    (19) a. Ta shi bu shi zai Beijing xue yuyanxue de?
    3SG be NEG be at Beijing learn linguistics DE
    `Was it in Beijing that he studied linguistics?'
Example #16:

    b. Bu shi, ta       shi zai Shanghai xue de
    NEG be      3SG be at       Shanghai learn DE
    `No, it was in Shanghai.'
Example #17:

    c. % Bu shi, ta shi zai Beijing xue fawen de
    NEG be 3SG be at Beijing learn French DE
    (% `No, it was in Beijing that he studied French.')
Example #18:

    chuang ye zhengli-le
    bed        also put:in:order-PERF
    `I did the laundry, wiped the floor, washed the bowls and also made the bed.'
Example #19:

    (22) a. Ta (*you ) nei-ben shu you kan-le yi-bian
    3SG again that-CL book again see-PERF 1-time
    `He has read that book one more time.'
Example #20:

    b. Wo you lian yi-fen qian            ye mei you le
    1SG again even 1-CL money also NEG have PART
    `Once again I don't even have a cent.'
Example #21:

    (23) a. Zhe-ge waiguoren, lian gourou         ta   ye/dou     chi
    this-CL foreigner even dog.meat 3SG also/all          eat
    `This foreigner, he even eats dogmeat.'
Example #22:

    (i) Wo zai meiguo [hen duo difang ] zhu-guo
    1SG at       America very many place          live-EXP
    `I have lived in a lot of places in America.'       (Tsai Mei-chih 1995:161; (12
Example #23:

    (i) Ta you          ba     wo pian-le
    3SG again BA 1SG cheat-PERF
    `He cheated me again.'
Example #24:

    (29) Wo lan         chenshan/zhei-zhong chenshan mai-le            san-jian
    1SG blue shirt            this-kind                shirt      buy-PERF 3-CL
    `I bought three blue shirts/three shirts of this kind.'
Example #25:

    dan ziji bu        tai manyi
    but self NEG too satisfied
    `I have written quite a few novels these past years, but I'm not very satisfied.
Example #26:

    (i) Ta ren bu            xiang       ren , gui       bu     xiang     gui
    3SG man NEG resemble man ghost NEG resemble ghost
    `He neither resembles a human being nor a ghost.'
Example #27:

    (ii) Qu jiu qu, wo hai pa                         ni     bu    cheng
    go then go         1SG still be:afraid 2SG NEG accomplish
    `Let's go, I'm not afraid of (going with) you.'
Example #28:

    (iii) Ta congming dao              ting congming, jiushi xie zuoye              tai cuxin
    3SG intelligent actually very intelligent only write homework too careless
    `He is very intelligent for sure, only he is too careless when writing his homew
Example #29:

    (31) Hua,      ta    zui      xihuan chahua
    flower 3SG most like               camelia
    `Flowers, he prefers camelia.'
Example #30:

    (33) a. Ta nei-jian shi         hai mei zuo jueding ne
    3SG that-CL matter still NEG make decision PART
    `He has not yet come to a decision concerning that matter.'
Example #31:

    (34) a. Ta    yingyu     kao-le              ge jiushi-fen
    3SG English      take.exam-PERF CL 90-point
    `He obtained 90 points in the English exam.'
Example #32:

    (36) Huiyuan dahui,      ni   mingtian-de richeng anpai-hao-le            meiyou?
    member meeting 2SG tomorrow-SUB program plan-finish-PERF NEG
    `The general membership meeting, have you fixed tomorrow's program?'
Example #33:

    (38) Zhe huar, ni        shui jiao duo le
    this flower 2SG water pour much PART
    `This flower, you have to water it quite a lot.'