The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

C.-T. James Huang (1999). Chinese Passives in Comparative Perspective.

URL: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/ealc/chinling/articles/huang.passive.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3411&langcode=jpn (2022-01-20).


Example #1:

    (79)    a.    Mary-ga John-onagut-ta.
    Mary-nom John-acc hit-past
    Mary hit John.
Example #2:

    b.    John-ga Mary-ni nagur-are-ta.
    John-nom Mary-dat hit-passive-past
    John was hit by Mary.
Example #3:

    (80)   a.    Mary-ga John-no kodomo-o sikat-ta.
    Mary-nom John-gen child-acc scold-past
    Mary scolded John's child.
Example #4:

    b.    John-ga Mary-ni kodomo-o sikar-are-ta.
    John-nom Mary-dat child-acc scold-passive-past
    (Lit. Johni was scolded [hisi] child byMary.)
Example #5:

    (81)   a.    Mary-ga John-o nagut-ta.
    Mary-nom John-acc hit-past
    Mary hit John.
Example #6:

    b.    Bill-ga Mary-ni John-o nagur-are-ta.
    Bill-nom Mary-dat John-acc hit-passive-past
    Bill was (adversely) affected by Mary's hitting John.
Example #7:

    (82)   a.    John-ga nai-ta.
    John-nom cry-past
    John cried.
Example #8:

    b.    Mary-ga John-ni nak-are-ta.
    Mary-nom John-dat cry-passive-past
    Mary had John crying on her.
Example #9:

    (88)    Maryi ga John ni [Bill ga ei hihansita to]             iw-are-te-iru.
    Mary NOM John DAT Bill NOMcriticized COMP say-ing-is
    Lit. Maryi is (being) said by John that Billcriticized ei.
Example #10:

    (116) John-ga Mary-ni kodomo-o sikar-are-ta.                       (Japanese)
    John-nom Mary-dat child-acc scold-pass-past
    John had his child scolded by Mary.
Example #11:

    (124) gakusei-ga sensei-ni san-nin t kino [sakubun-ohome]-rare-ta.
    student-nom teacher-dat 3-cl yesterday essay-accpraise-passive-past
    (Lit. Three students were `essay-praised' by theteacher yesterday.)
Example #12:

    (128) Emi-ga Ken-ni yotte kodomo-o home-rare-ta.
    Emi-Nom Ken-Dat-by child-Acc praise-Pass-Past
    Emi had her child praised by Ken.
Example #13:

    (129) Ken-ga Aya-ni yotte asi-ni ude-o sibaritake-rare-ta.
    Ken-Nom Aya-Dat-by leg-Dat arm-Acc tie-Pass-Past
    Ken has his arms tied to his legs by Aya.
Example #14:

    (133) *Emi-ga Ken-ni yotte deteik-are-ta.
    Emi-Nom Ken-Dat-by go-out-Pass-Past
    Emi was affected by Ken going out.
Example #15:

    (134) *Mary-ga John-ni yotte nak-are-ta.
    Mary-Nom John-Dat-by cry-Pass-Past
    Mary had John crying on her.