ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Miriam Butt (2005). Complex Predicate Compendium.

URL: http://www.hum.uit.no/a/svenonius/papers/Butt05ComplexPredHO.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3414&langcode=urd (2021-06-15).

 

Example #1:

    (1) a. nadya=ne     xt             likh li-ya
    Nadya.F=Erg letter.M.Nom write take-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya wrote a letter (completely).' (Urdu)
Example #2:

    b. nadya=ne      m kan         b na di-ya
    Nadya.F=Erg house.M.Nom make give-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya built a house (completely, for somebo dy else).'   (Urdu)
Example #3:

    (2 ) a .    njm=ne      s dd f=ko       xt      likh -ne      di-ya
    Anjum.F=Erg Saddaf.F=Dat letter.M.Nom write-Inf.Obl give-Perf.M.Sg
    `Anjum let Saddaf write a letter.'
Example #4:

    b. kis=ne        ktte=ko         gh r ke nd r      a-ne         di-a?
    who.Obl=Erg dog.M.Obl=Dat house Gen.Obl inside come-Inf.Obl give-Perf.M.Sg
    `Who let the dog come into the house?'     (Glassman 1976:235)
Example #5:

    b.     njm=ne      m kan        b n-a-ya
    Anjum.F=Erg house.M.Sg.Nom be made-Caus-Perf.M.Sg
    `Anjum built a house.'
Example #6:

    nadya=ne       k hani          yad       k-i                 [Urdu]
    Nadya.F.Sg=Erg story.F.Sg.Nom memory do-Perf.F.Sg
    `Nadya remembered the story (actively).'
Example #7:

    (12) a. billi          bistar    [ke      nich e] so rah-i       h
    cat.F.Sg.Nom bed.M.Sg Gen.Obl under sleep stay-Perf.F.Sg be.Pres.3.Sg
    `The cat is sleeping under the bed.'                     (Urdu)
Example #8:

    (13) a. vo        ro-ne      l g- i
    Pron.Nom cry-Inf.Obl be.attached-Perf.F.Sg
    `She began to cry.
Example #9:

    b. vo         a      ck-a
    Pron.Nom come lift-Perf.M.Sg
    `He has arrived.'
Example #10:

    (16) nadya=ne     xt             likh li-ya
    Nadya.F=Erg letter.M.Nom write take-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya wrote a letter (completely).' (Urdu)
Example #11:

    b.    dnan=ne       gari       c la-yi     h
    Adnan.M=Erg car.F.Nom drive-Perf.F.Sg be.Pres.3.Sg
    `Adnan has driven a car.'
Example #12:

    (1 8 ) a .    njm=ne      s dd f=ko       xt      likh -ne      di-ya
    Anjum.F=Erg Saddaf.F=Dat letter.M.Nom write-Inf.Obl give-Perf.M.Sg
    `Anjum let Saddaf write a letter.'
Example #13:

    (34) a. vo              so  r h-i     th - i
    Pron.3.Sg.Nom sleep Prog-F.Sg be.Past-Sg.F
    `She was sleeping.' (Urdu)
Example #14:

    (35) nadya=ne         x t=ko             likh mar-a
    Nadya.F.Sg=Erg letter.M.Sg=Acc write hit-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya dashed off the letter (forcefully).' (Urdu)
Example #15:

    (37) nadya=ne         xt               likh li-ya
    Nadya.F.Sg=Erg letter.M.Sg.Nom write take-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya wrote the letter (completely, for herself ).' (Urdu)
Example #16:

    (40) nadya=ne         s dd f=ko         xt       likh -ne      di-ya
    Nadya.F.Sg=Erg Saddaf.F.Sg=Dat letter.M.Nom write-Inf.Obl give-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya let Saddaf write a letter.'
Example #17:

    (43) nadya=ne     xt             likh li-ya
    Nadya.F=Erg letter.M.Nom write take-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya wrote a letter (completely).'
Example #18:

    (46) nadya=ne         s dd f=ko          xt          likh le-ne     di-ya
    Nadya.F.Sg=Erg Saddaf.F.Sg=Dat letter.M.Nom write take-Inf.Obl give-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya let Saddaf write a letter (completely).'
Example #19:

    (48) nadya           cai         pi-ti           h / th i
    Nadya.F.Sg.Nom tea.F.Sg.Nom drink-Impf.F.Sg be.Sg.Pres/be.F.Sg.Past
    `Nadya drinks/drank tea.'
Example #20:

    (51) nadya=se          g a ri         c la-yi     ja-ti        (h )
    Nadya.F.Sg=Inst car.F.Sg.Nom drive-Perf.F.Sg go-Impf.F.Sg be.Pres.Sg
    `A car gets driven by Nadya.'
Example #21:

    (53) a. nadya=ne         g a ri       c la l-i           (h )
    Nadya.F.Sg=Erg car.F.Sg.Nom drive take-Perf.F.Sg be.Pres.Sg
    `Nadya has driven a/the car.'
Example #22:

    b. nadya=ne         kh ana         kh a li-ya
    Nadya.F.Sg=Erg fo o d.M.Sg.Nom eat take-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya has eaten (completely).'
Example #23:

    (57) nadya            cai        pi    s k-ti        h
    Nadya.F.Sg.Nom tea.F.Sg.Nom drink can-Impf.F.Sg be.Sg.Pres
    `Nadya can drink tea.'
Example #24:

    (6 4 ) a .    cch a, urdu           bh i bol-ti         h?
    yes     Urdu.F.Sg.Nom also speak-Impf.F.Sg be.Pres.Sg
    `So, she also speaks Urdu?'
Example #25:

    le-gi
    take-Fut.F.Sg
    `If the road is go o d, Nadya will ride a bicycle.'
Example #26:

    b. gari          nadya              c la le-ti      (h )
    car.F.Sg.Nom Nadya.F.Sg.Nom drive take-Impf.F.Sg be.Pres.Sg
    `?As for a/the car, Nadya drives it.'
Example #27:

    (86) a. nadya=se          g a ri         c la-yi     j a - ti     h
    Nadya.F.Sg=Inst car.F.Sg.Nom drive-Perf.F.Sg go-Impf.F.Sg be.Pres.Sg
    `A/the car gets driven by Nadya.'
Example #28:

    b. gari              nadya=se       c la-yi     j a - ti     h
    Nadya.F.Sg=Inst car.F.Sg.Nom drive-Perf.F.Sg go-Impf.F.Sg be.Pres.Sg
    `The car gets driven by Nadya.'
Example #29:

    (87) a. nadya            g a ri      c la s k-ti        h
    Nadya.F.Sg.Nom car.F.Sg.Nom drive can-Impf.F.Sg be.Pres.Sg
    `Nadya can drive a/the car.'
Example #30:

    (9 7 )    njm=ne         p th r=ko    bahar nikal li-ya
    Anjum.F.Sg=Erg stone.M=Acc out extract take-Perf.M.Sg
    `Anjum extracted the stone.' (Urdu)