The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Masayoshi Shibatani and Prashant Pardeshi (2002). THE CAUSATIVE CONTINUUM*.

URL: http://www.lit.kobe-u.ac.jp/linguistics/KPL/3_2001/KPL_2001_shibatani-pardeshi.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3416&langcode=jpn (2022-01-19).


Example #1:

    (1) a.    Kabin-ga ware- ta. (Inactive intransitive)
    vase- NOM break- PAST
    `The vase broke.'
Example #2:

    b. Taroo- ga      kabin - o wat - ta. (Transitive)
    NOM vase- ACC bre ak- PAST
    `Taro broke the vase.'
Example #3:

    c. *Taroo-ga       kabin- o          ware- sase- ta. (Intransitive- based causative)
    NOM vase- ACC break - CAUS -PAST
    `Taro made the vase break.'
Example #4:

    (2) a. Ziroo - ga         hasit- ta. (Active intransitive)
    NOM        run- PAST
    `Jiro ran.'
Example #5:

    c. Taroo- ga Ziroo- ni/o           hasira-se- ta. (Intransitive - based causative)
    `Taro had/made Jiro run.'
Example #6:

    (3) a. Ziroo - ga    kabin- o wat- ta. (Transitive)
    NOM vase-ACC break - PAST
    `Jiro broke the vase.'
Example #7:

    b. Taroo- ga Ziroo- ni             kabin-o wara- se- ta. (Transitive- based causative)
    NOM          DAT vase- ACC break- CAUS - PAST
    `Taro made Jiro break the vase.'
Example #8:

    (22) a. Hahaoya - ga kodomo- o         asoba- se- te      i- ru. (Joint- action)
    mother- NOM child - ACC        play- CAUS - CONJ be- PRES
    `Mother is making the child play. '
Example #9:

    b. Hahaoya - ga kodomo- ni osikko- o sa- se- te                   i- ru. (Assistive)
    mother- NOM child - DAT pee- ACC do-CAUS - CONJ be-PRES
    `Mother is making the child pee.'
Example #10:

    c. Hahaoya - ga kodomo- ni hon- o        yoma-se- te          i-ru. (Supervision)
    mother- NOM child - DAT book- ACC read-CAUS - CONJ be - PRES
    `Mother is making the child read a book.'