The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Wei-Tien Dylan Tsai (2000). The Hows of Why and The Whys of How.

URL: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/ealc/chinling/articles/tsai16.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3457&langcode=jpn (2022-01-19).


Example #1:

    (ii) a.      Taroo-wa doo-yat-te/*doo-si-te syuppatu su-ru no?
    Taroo-Top how-do-Ger                leave    -Pres Q
    'By what means will Taroo leave?'
Example #2:

    b.    Taroo-wa doo-si-te/*doo-yat-te syuppatu si-ta        no?
    Taroo-Top how-do-Ger                leave    -Past Q
    'Why did Taroo leave?'
Example #3:

    c.    Taroo-wa doo-mo           kasiko-ku na-i.
    Taroo-Top how-any clever-Inf Neg-Pres
    'Taroo is not so clever.'
Example #4:

    (i) John-wa kabin-o              doo kowasita-no
    top          vase-acc how broke-Q
    'How did John break the vase?'
Example #5:

    Answer: a.         konagona-ni
    'into pieces' (result)
Example #6:

    b.    hanmaa-de        tatai-te
    hammer-with hitting
    'by hitting with a hammer' (method)
Example #7:

    c.    nan-no tamerai-mo naku
    any-gen hesitation        NEG
    'with no hesitation' (style)