The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Kamil Ud Deen (2003). Underspecified Verb Forms and Subject Omission in Nairobi Swahili.

URL: http://www2.hawaii.edu/~kamil/Deen%202003%20-%20BU.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3463&langcode=swh (2021-09-26).


Example #1:

    (7)      Juma a - na - m ­ pend - a Mariam
    Juma SA3s-Pres- OA3s- like - IND Mariam
    'Juma likes Mariam'
Example #2:

    (10)     a.       Ų na ­ tak ­ a ch­ai?                 Present tense
    pres ­ want ­ IND 7­tea              (Hamisi, HAW05)
    `(Do you) want tea?'
Example #3:

    b.       Ų ta ­ ku ­ chun ­ a                  Future tense
    fut­OA2s ­ pinch­IND                (Mot, MUS10)
    `(I) will pinch you'
Example #4:

    c.   Ų ta ­ ku ­ chapa ­ a
    fut­OA2s ­ slap­IND                         (Sam, MUS10)
    `(I) will slap you'
Example #5:

    d.   n­dege Ų na ­ ruk ­ a
    9-bird pres­fly up­IND                        (Ali, FAU07)
    `The bird is flying up'
Example #6:

    (13)    a.       Kila mw-anafunzi a ­ na ­ som ­ a  ki ­ tabu
    Every 1-student SA3s­pres­read­IND 7­book
    `Every student is reading a book.'
Example #7:

    (14)    a.       a ­ li ­ ni ­ ambi­a [kwamba a ­ ka ­ kimbi ­ a ]
    SA3s­past­OA1s­ tell­IND that SA3s­cont­run­IND
    `He told me that he then ran off'
Example #8:

    b.       ?? a ­ li ­ ni ­ ambi­a [kwamba Ų ka ­kimbi­a ]
    SA3s­past­OA1s­tell­IND     that     Ų cont­run­IND
    `He told me that (he) then ran off'