ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Kamil Ud Deen (2004). The Acquisition of Nairobi Swahili.

URL: http://www2.hawaii.edu/~kamil/ARLA%20-%20Deen%202003%20-%20final.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3464&langcode=swh (2021-09-19).

 

Example #1:

    (2)    a.      Juma     a - na - m ­ pend - a          Mariam               S­V­O
    Juma SA3s-Pres- OA3s- like - IND        Mariam
    'Juma likes Mariam'
Example #2:

    (4)    Ø ta ­ ku ­ chapa ­ a
    fut­OA2s ­ slap­IND
    `(I) will slap you'
Example #3:

    (5)    Ø na ­ ju ­ a ku­wach­ a kelele ?
    pres­know­IND inf­leave­IND noise
    `(Do you) know how to stop making noise?'
Example #4:

    (6)    n­dege Ø na ­ ruk ­ a
    9-bird    pres­fly up­IND
    `The bird is flying up'
Example #5:

    b.      Kila mw-anafunzi a ­ na ­ som ­ a ki ­ tabu
    Every 1-student SA3s­pres­read­IND 7­book
    `Every student is reading a book.'
Example #6:

    b.      nani a ­ li ­ fik ­ a mapema
    who SA3s­past­arrive­IND early
    `Who arrived early?'
Example #7:

    c.       ?? Juma Ø ­ li ­ fik ­ a mapema
    Juma,      past­arrive­IND early
    `Juma, he arrived early.'
Example #8:

    ku ­ anguka ­ a                                        Hypothetical Example
    INF ­ fall ­ IND
    `I might/may/want to fall'
Example #9:

    b.      mimi ...ni ­ li ­ tow ­ a                              Mus12, line 1546
    I     SA1s­past­remove­IND                            (Past tense)
    `I...removed (it)'
Example #10:

    c.     siku gani u ­ ta ­ end­a ?                           Fau03, line 226
    day which SA2s­fut­go­IND                            (Future tense)
    `On what day will you go?
Example #11:

    d.     a ­ ka ­ end ­ a                                     Has01, line 547
    SA3s­cont­go­IND                                     (Continuative tense)
    `He (then) went.'
Example #12:

    u ­ ta ­ nunu ­ a nini ?
    sa2s­fut­buy­ind what
    (lit: Father, you said you will buy what?)
Example #13:

    target:        mimi ni ­ na ­ ruk ­ a                          (Present tense)
    I SA1s­ pres­jump ­IND
    `I am jump down.'
Example #14:

    target:          ndege i ­ me ­ end ­ a juu                    (Pres.perfect)
    bird SAinanim­p.perf.­go­IND up
    `The bird has gone up.'
Example #15:

    target:       ni ­ na ­ lala ­ a                             (Present tense)
    SA1s­pres­sleep­IND
    `I am sleeping.'
Example #16:

    target:        a ­ li ­ ni ­ sumbu ­ a                       (Past tense)
    SA3s­past­OA1s­disturb­IND
    `He disturbed me.'
Example #17:

    target:        ni ­ ta ­ po ­ a                              (Future tense)
    SA1s­fut­relax­IND
    `I will relax.'
Example #18:

    target:        ni ­ ta ­ ku ­pig ­ a
    SA1s­ fut­oa2s­hit­IND
    `I will hit you.'
Example #19:

    target:        u ­ ta ­ nunu ­ li ­ a hii soda?                     (applicative)
    SA2s­fut­buy­applic­IND this soda
    `Will you buy (for me) this soda?'
Example #20:

    target:         a ­ na ­ vaa ­ li ­ sh ­ w ­ a
    SA3s­pres­wear­applic­causative­passive­IND
    (lit.: He is caused to have the clothes to be put on.)
Example #21:

    target: ni ­ na ­ kw ­ ambi ­ a
    SA1s­pres­OA2s­tell­IND
    `I am telling you.'
Example #22:

    target: u ­ li ­ kimbi ­ z ­ a?
    SA2s­past­run­causative­IND
    `Did you make (him) run?'
Example #23:

    target: a ­ li ­ sem ­ a nini?
    SA3s­past­say­IND what
    `What did he say?'
Example #24:

    target: alafu a ­ li ­ rud ­ i
    then SA3s­past­return­IND
    `Then he returned.'
Example #25:

    target: u ­ na ­ on ­ a Nimó?
    SA2s­ pres ­ see ­ IND Nimó
    `Do you see Nimó?'
Example #26:

    target: ni ­ me ­ pit ­ a
    SA1s­ p.perf. ­ pass ­ IND
    `I have passed (through).'
Example #27:

    target: a ­ li ­ tup ­ a
    SA3s­ past ­ throw ­ IND
    `He threw (something).'
Example #28:

    target:         ni ­ li ­ anguk ­ a hivi
    SA1s­past­fall­IND like this
    `I fell like this.'
Example #29:

    target:          ni ­ na ­ tak ­ a tuwadh­a
    SA1s­pres­want­IND bathe­IND
    `I want to bathe.'
Example #30:

    target:         ni ­ me ­ andik ­ a
    SA1s­p.perf.­write­IND
    `I have written.'
Example #31:

    target:         a ­ na ­ ka ­ a hapa
    SA3s­pres­live­IND here
    `She lives here.'
Example #32:

    target:          a ­ me ­ end ­ a job
    SA3s­p.perf.­go­IND job
    `He has gone to work.'
Example #33:

    target :        a ­ li ­ ni ­ um ­ a
    SA3s­past - OA1s­hurt ­   IND
    `He hurt me.'
Example #34:

    target:         ni ­ me ­ kasirik ­ a
    SA1s­p.perf.­get angry­IND
    (lit: I have gotten angry)
Example #35:

    target:         a ­ ka ­ shuk ­ a chini
    SA3s­cont­alight­IND down
    `He then got down.'
Example #36:

    target:          Baba a ­ me ­ end ­ a hoa
    Baba SA3s­p.perf.­go­IND hoa
    `Father has gone home.'
Example #37:

    morphemic:     ku ­ end ­ a
    INF ­ go ­ IND
    `to go'
Example #38:

    ni ­ ta ­ pik ­ a (chakula)
    sa1s­fut­cook­ind (food)
    `I will cook food'
Example #39:

    ni ­ ta ­ anguk ­a
    sa1s­fut­ fall ­ ind
    `I will fall'
Example #40:

    target:          ni ­ ta ­ po ­ a
    SA1s­fut­relax­IND
    `I will relax.'
Example #41:

    target: ni ­ na ­ kw ­ ambi ­ a                       Truncation Hypothesis
    SA1s­pres­OA2s­tell­IND
    `I am telling you.'
Example #42:

    target:          ni ­ ta ­ ku ­pig ­ a                       the Underspecification of T theory
    SA1s­ fut­oa2s­hit­IND
    `I will hit you.'
Example #43:

    target:          a ­ na ­ ka ­ a hapa                         the Underspecification of T theory
    SA3s­pres­live­IND here
    `She lives here.'
Example #44:

    target:          ndege i ­ me ­ end ­ a juu
    bird SAinanim­p.perf.­go­IND up
    `The bird has gone up.'
Example #45:

    target:          ni ­ me ­ pit ­ a
    SA1s­ p.perf. ­ pass ­ IND
    `I have passed (through).'
Example #46:

    target:          a ­ ka ­ shuk ­ a chini
    SA3s­cont­alight­IND down
    `He then got down.'