The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Sam Mchombo (2006). Linear Order Constraints on Split NPs in Chichewa.

URL: http://www.zas.gwz-berlin.de/papers/zaspil/articles/zp43/ZASPiL43_Mchombo.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3465&langcode=nya (2021-09-19).


Example #1:

    (1)       Mkángo u-da-wá-ómb-án-íts-a                  alenje      ndí asodzi
    3lion      3SM-pst-2OM-hit-recip-caus-fv 2hunters and 2fishermen
    `The lion made them hit each other, the hunters and the fishermen'2
Example #2:

    `These bees bit these foolish hunters.'
Example #3:

    mikángó          yókálamba
    4lions           4SMaged
    `(As for) hoes, the zebras bought (for) the aged lions these blunt ones.'
Example #4:

    b. Mbűzi atsíkáná á                   mfúmu a-a-gul-á      zákúd-a
    10goats 2girls         2AssocM 9chief 2S-perf-buy-fv 10SM-black
    Lit. `Goats, the chief's girls have bought black (ones).'
Example #5:

    c.   Mikánda, anyaní         ópúsa       a-na-b-á   yófíila
    4beads      2baboons 2SMsilly 2SM-pst-steal-fv 4SMred
    Lit. `Beads, the silly baboons stole red ones.'
Example #6:

    (5) a. Nsomba, anyání          ópúsa        a-na-gúl-á        milämba
    10fish      2baboon 2SMfoolish 2SM-pst-buy-fv 4mudfish
    `(As for) fish, the foolish baboons bought mudfish.'
Example #7:

    b. Miténgo, njovu             z-anu         zi-ku-gwéts-á      milámbe
    4trees 10elephants 10SM-your 10SM-pres-fell-fv 4baobabs
    `(As for) trees, your elephants are pulling down (the) baobabs.'
Example #8:

    (7) a.    *Nsómba,        anyání       ópúsa       a-na-zi-gúl-á              milämba
    10fish          2baboon      2SMfoolish 2SM-pst-10OM-buy-fv 4mudfish
    `(As for) fish,   the foolish   baboons bought (them, i.e. fish) mudfish.'
Example #9:

    b. *Nsómba,         anyání       ópúsa       a-na-i-gúl-á              milämba
    10fish          2baboon      2SMfoolish 2SM-pst-4OM-buy-fv 4mudfish
    `(As for) fish,   the foolish   baboons bought (them) mudfish'
Example #10:

    (8) a. Zisakasa mkángó wópúsa u-na-máng-á                              zi-sanu  z-ókha
    8grass.hut 3lion         3SMsilly 3SM-pst-build-fv              8SM-five 8SM-only
    Lit. `Grass huts, the silly lion built only five.'
Example #11:

    b. Zisakasa        mkángó wópúsa u-na-máng-á                          zó-chépa
    8grass.hut 3lion         3SMsilly 3SM-pst-build-fv              8SM-few
    Lit. `Grass huts, the silly lion built a few.'
Example #12:

    Lit. `Five zebras, the lion is chasing them in a cruel manner (cruelly).'
Example #13:

    alenje     a-méné       á-ma-gwetsá          mitęngo
    2hunters 2SM-relpro 2SM-hab-fell             4trees
    `The lion which hunts goats bothers the    hunters who fell trees.'
Example #14:

    (12) a.   mkángo u-ku-sáká            mbúzi
    3lion      3SM-pres-hunt 10goats
    `The lion is hunting goats.'
Example #15:

    b. mkángó u-méné             ú-kú-sáká  mbúzi
    3lion      3SM-relpro 3SM-pres-hunt 10goats
    `The lion which is hunting goats...'
Example #16:

    c.  mkángó ú-kú-sáká             mbúzi
    3lion      3SM-pres-hunt 10goats
    `The lion that is hunting goats...'
Example #17:

    miténgo        u-méné        ú-ma-saká                  mbúzi
    4trees         3SM-relpro 3SM-hab-hunt                  10goats
    `The hunters   the lion bother them, who fell trees,   that hunts goats.'
Example #18:

    (16) a. chipanda chá          kazitápe
    7calabash 7AssocM 1a.spy
    Lit. `calabash of spy'
Example #19:

    b. chipanda ch-á             kazitápé w-á              alenje
    7calabash 7-AssocM 1a.spy        1SM-AssocM 2-hunters
    `calabash of the spy of the hunters'
Example #20:

    chipanda     chá           kazitápé      wá             alenje
    7calabash    7AssocM       1a.spy        1AssocM        2hunters
    `The mad    baboons are   smashing the    calabash of the hunters' spy.'
Example #21:

    anyaní    á          mísala    a-ku-chí-phwány-a     chipanda
    2baboons 2AssocM 4madness 2SM-pres-7OM-smash-fv 7calabash
    Lit. `Of the spy of the hunters the mad baboons are smashing the
Example #22:

    chipanda chá          chiphadzúwá chá                 alenje
    7calabash 7AssocM 7beauty.queen 7SMAssocM 2hunters