ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Rose M. Letsholo (2006). WH Constructions in Ikalanga.

URL: http://www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/35/paper1315.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3496&langcode=kck (2021-09-19).

 

Example #1:

    (2a)    Neo     wa- - ka- bona                  ndi-ani?
    Neo1a WHagr1 SA1a past see               Foc-who1
    `Who did Neo see?'
Example #2:

    (2b)    Neo     w-ka- bona ani?
    Neo1a SA1apast see who
    `Who did Neo see?'
Example #3:

    (3)    Wa-ka        bona Neo ndi-ani?
    WHagr1 past. See Neo1a Foc-who
    `Who saw Neo?'
Example #4:

    (4a)     Neo     -    no- bika nyama.
    Neo1a SA1a pres. cook meat9
    `Neo cooks meat.'
Example #5:

    (4b)     *Neo no- bika             nyama.
    Neo1a pres. -cook        meat9
    `Neo cooks meat.'
Example #6:

    (4c)     Neo     w-      bika nyama.
    Neo1a SA1a perf. cook meat9
    `Neo has cooked meat.'
Example #7:

    (4d)     Neo     w- ka-           bika nyama.
    Neo1a SA1a past.          cook meat9
    `Neo cooked meat.'
Example #8:

    (4e)     Neo - noo -          bika nyama.
    Neo1a SA1a -future cook meat9
    `Neo will cook meat.'
Example #9:

    (4f) Neo a          - zo - bika nyama.
    Neo1a Neg. SA1a pres. cook meat9.
    `Neo did not cook meat.'
Example #10:

    u    noo langwa.
    SA1a fut.   sulk
    `If Neo comes, Nchidzi will sulk.'
Example #11:

    (5a)    Ndi-ani     wa- ka-       bona        Neo?
    Foc-who     WHagr1 -past see          Neo1a
    `Who saw Neo?' (Subject)
Example #12:

    (5b)    Ndiani   Neo wa- -          ka-      bona?
    Foc-who Neo1a WHagr1 SA1a past         -see
    `Who did Neo see?' (Object)
Example #13:

    (6a) Wa-ka-       bona Neo ndi-ani?
    WHagr1 past. see   Neo1a Foc-who
    Who saw Neo?' (Subject)
Example #14:

    (6b) Neo wa- - ka-             bona ndi-ani?
    Neo1a WHagr1 SA1a past    see  Foc-who1
    `Who did Neo see?' (Object)
Example #15:

    (7a)  Neo w- ka- bona ani?
    Neo1a SA1apast see  who
    `Who did Neo see?'
Example #16:

    (7b) *Neo      wa- - ka-    bona ani?
    Neo1a WHagr SA1a-past see  who
    `Who did Neo see?'
Example #17:

    (8a)   Neo w- ka-         bona Nchidzi.
    Neo1a SA1a past see      Nchidzi1a
    `Neo saw Nchidzi.'
Example #18:

    (8b)   W- ka- bona Nchidzi, Neo.
    SA1a past see Nchidzi1a Neo1a
    `Neo saw Nchidzi.'
Example #19:

    (8c)   Nchidzi, Neo w- ka- m-bona.
    Nchidzi1a Neo1a SA1a past-OM-see
    `Nchidzi, Neo saw him.'
Example #20:

    (9a)    Ndi-boani ba-       no- bona Neo?
    Foc-Who2 WH2agr. pres. -see Neo1a
    `Who(PL) sees Neo?'(Subject)
Example #21:

    [XP1 wa-        [TP   - ka- [VP bona ti]]]]]]]]]]
    WHagr          SA1a-past see
    `Neo wondered who Nchidzi saw.'
Example #22:

    (12a) Neo w- ka- bona          ani?
    Neo1a SA1a past -see      who
    `Who did Neo see?'
Example #23:

    (12b) *Neo wa- -               ka-    bona ani?
    Neo1a WHagr SA1a         past   see  who
    `Who did Neo see?'
Example #24:

    (13a)    Wa- ka- bona Neo ndi-ani?
    WHagr1 past. see Neo1a Foc-who
    `Who saw Neo?' (Subject)
Example #25:

    (13b)    Neo wa- -          ka- bona ndi-ani?
    Neo1a WHagr1 -SA1a past -see Foc-who1
    `Who did Neo see?' (Object)
Example #26:

    [XP ti kene [IP1 Nchidzi w-       ka-    bona ti ]]]]]
    whether       Nchidzi1a SA1    past see
    `Who did Neo wonder whether Nchidzi saw?'
Example #27:

    [FocP ndi-ani [IP1 wa- ka-       bona ti ]]]]]?
    Foc-who     SA1 past see
    `Who did Neo wonder who saw?'
Example #28:

    (16)    Neo w- ka-       zwibuzwa kuti             ndi-ani wa- ka- bona                 ani?
    Neo1a SA1a past wonder that                 Foc-who WHagr past-see               who?
    `Who did Neo wonder who saw?'
Example #29:

    kuti [IP1 Nchidzi [TP w- ka- [VP loba ndianii]]]]]?
    that        Nchidzi1a     SA1a past          hit
    `Who did Neo think that Nchidzi hit?'
Example #30:

    [IP1 w- ka- loba ndianii ]]]]]]]]k [ndi-anii tk]?
    SA1a past-hit                   Foc-who
    `Who did Neo see the person who hit?'
Example #31:

    [CP asathu [IP1 a-    ka- loba ti ]]]]]
    before      SA1a past -hit
    `Who did Neo see Nchidzi before he hit?'
Example #32:

    ka-loba       ndi-boani]]]]]?
    past-hit       Foc-who
    Who did Neo see Nchidzi before he hit?'
Example #33:

    (20)   Neo w- ka- bona Nchidzi a               sathu        -   ka-       loba   ani?
    Neo1a SA1a past-see Nchidzi1a SA1a before             SA1a past      see    who
    `Who did Neo see Nchidzi before he hit?'
Example #34:

    (21)   Neo wa-      -     ka-    bona zubuyanana      ndi-ani?
    Neo1a WH1agr SA1 past see       well            Foc-who1
    `Who did Neo see well?'
Example #35:

    (22)   * Neo     w- ka-       bona zubuyanana           ani?
    Neo1a SA1 past see            well              who1
    `Who did Neo see?'
Example #36:

    (23)   Neo wa-          - ka- bona ndi-ani?
    Neo1a WH1agr SA1 past- see         Foc-who1
    `Who did Neo see well?'
Example #37:

    (28a)    Wa-ka-       bona Neo ndiani?
    WHagr1 past. see  Neo1a Foc-who
    `Who saw Neo?' (subject)
Example #38:

    (34)        Neo    wa- - ka-      bona ndi-ani?
    Neo1a WHagr1 SA1a past see  Foc-who1
    `Who did Neo see?'