The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Mark C. Baker (2003). On the Loci of Agreement.

URL: http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~mabaker/mapuche-inversion.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3531&langcode=arn (2021-12-03).


Example #1:

    (1)     a. Ti wentru pe-fi-y         ti domo.
    the man see-3O-ind/3sS the woman
    `The man sees the woman.'
Example #2:

    b. Pe-fi-n          ti domo.
    see-3O-ind/1sS the woman
    `I see the woman.'
Example #3:

    (2)      a. Ti domo pe-e-y-ew          ti wentru.
    the woman see-?-ind/3sS-? the man
    `The woman, the man sees (her).'
Example #4:

    b. Pe-e-n-ew         ti             domo.
    see-?-ind/1sS-?   the            woman
    `Me, the woman saw.'
Example #5:

    (3)      *Ti domo pe-n-y
    the woman see-1sO-ind/3sS
    `The woman saw me.'
Example #6:

    (4)      a. Kie wentru inaya-wlke-rke-fu-i-y              kie kme llch domo.
    one man visit-wander-rep-past-3O-ind/3sS        one good young woman
    `A man was going to visit a beautiful young woman.'
Example #7:

    b. ay-neke-rke-fu-i-y ...                            (direct form, topic is subject)
    `He loved her.'
Example #8:

    c. feymeo chi llcha domo ay-rke-la-f-e-y-eo. (inverse, topic is object)
    then     the young woman love-rep-neg-past-??-ind/3sS-??
    `But the girl did not love him.'
Example #9:

    (5)    *Ti domo pe-e-y-(ew)               inche.
    the woman see-??-ind/3sS-ds        me
    `The woman, I saw (her).'
Example #10:

    (9)      a. Kdaw-el-me-ke-fu-fi-n          kie lmen, ...          Unergative
    work-appl-th-cf-ipd-3O-1sS one rich
    `I usually went to work for a rich man.' (Smeets 1989: 489)
Example #11:

    b. *La-ma-fi-y           i               pien.                       Unaccusative
    die-appl-3O-ind/3sS    poss             son
    `His son died on him.'
Example #12:

    (10)     Fey-chi chanchu eymi mi        ngilla-e-l trongli-le-y.
    that-adj pig     you 2s.poss buy-??-noml lean-stat-ind/3sS
    `That pig you bought is lean.'
Example #13:

    (11)   Pi-y-mi      mi      kdaw-a-l.                    (Smeets 1989:259)
    want-ind-2sS 2s.poss work-nrld-noml
    `You wanted to work.'
Example #14:

    (13)     a. kellu-fi-y i        pu                weny.         Active (Agent Topic)
    help-3O-3S poss plur                   friend
    `He helped his friends.'
Example #15:

    (18)   a. Elu-nge-(*fi)-n     ti metawe.                     Passive
    give-pass-3O-1sS the metawe
    `I was given the metawe.'
Example #16:

    b. Kie metawe elu-e-(*fi)-y-m-ew.                    Non-demotion passive
    one metawe give-inv-3O-ind-2sS-ds
    `He gave a metawe to you.'
Example #17:

    (19)   Kuyf-y           i       yi-we-no-el      ta ilo.
    be.long.time-3S 1s.poss eat-rem-neg-noml the meat
    `It has been a long time since I ate meat.'
Example #18:

    (20)    a. Inei kam langm-fi-y Piero?                      (Rivano 1991:121)
    who inter kill-3O-3sS Piero
    `Who did Piero kill?'
Example #19:

    (21)    a. *Pe-fi-y-mi      chem?                           (Baker to appear-b)
    see-3O-ind-2sS what
    `What did you see?
Example #20:

    b. Chem pe-fi-y-mi?
    what see-3O-ind-2sS
    `What did you see?
Example #21:

    (22)   a. Mle-y        mn        allk-ru-ma-ya-fi-el              i      dungu.
    have-ind/3S 2p.poss listen-tr-appl-nrld-3O-noml             poss    matter
    `You must listen to his word.' (Smeets 1989: 278)
Example #22:

    b. Fey rupa-y       mi        chem-pi-nu-e-t-ew              rum.
    He pass-ind/3S 2s.poss what-say-neg-inv-noml-ds           ever
    `He passed without (him) saying anything to you.' (Smeets 1989)
Example #23:

    (23)   Illu-e-n-ew         ta-i      langm-nge-a-l   ich.
    desire-inv-1sS-ds   1s.poss kill-pass-nrld-noml me
    `He wants me to be killed.' (Smeets 1989)
Example #24:

    (24)   Allk-la-y-mi        mungel chem mi          pedi-nge-n
    hear-neg-ind-2sS     exactly what 2p.poss request-pass-noml
    `You did not hear exactly what you were requested.' (Smeets 1989: 246)
Example #25:

    (25)   Eymi mi          iy-a-f[u]-el-chi        iyal utrf-entu-fi-n.
    you 2p.poss eat-nrld-past-noml-adj food throw-take.out-3O-1sS
    `I threw out the food that you would eat.'
Example #26:

    (26)   Chem ay-y-mi      inche i          elu-fi-el?
    what like-ind-2sS I         1s.poss give-3O-noml
    `What are you happy that I gave to you?'
Example #27:

    (27)   Mesa-mew mle-y             ti mamll i mle-n mi            tukupu-a-l.
    table-loc be-ind/3sS the wood             poss be-noml 2s.poss use-nrld-noml
    (lit. `the wood that it is that you will use')
Example #28:

    (28)   a. Mle-y mi         pe-a-fi-el       Juan.
    be-ind/3S 2s.poss see-nrld-3O-noml Juan
    `You must see Juan.'
Example #29:

    b. *Mle-n pe-nge-a-l
    be-1sS see-pass-nrld-noml
    `I must be seen.'
Example #30:

    (30)   a. Kie metawe elu-nge-n.
    one vessel give-pass-1sS
    `I was given -- a vessel.'
Example #31:

    (31)   Chem elu-fi-mi      Juan?
    what give-3O-2sS Juan
    `What did you give Juan?'
Example #32:

    (32)   Xoanna n-tu-y             ti libru i n-ma-wye-fi-el        Lisa.
    Joanna take-again-ind/3S the book poss take-appl-plpf-3O-noml Lisa
    `Joanna took back the book that she had taken away from Lisa.'
Example #33:

    (33)     a. Kishu elu-e-n-ew        kie metawe.
    he    give-inv-1sS-ds   one metawe
    `Me, he gave a metawe.'
Example #34:

    (34)     Chem elu-nge-y-mi?                             (Passive and constituent question)
    what give-pass-ind-2sS
    `What were you given?'
Example #35:

    (35)     Pe-fi          ti metawe inche i          elu-nge-n.
    see-3O/ind/3sS the metawe I        1s.poss give-pass-noml
    `He saw the metawe that I was given.'      (Passive and relative clause)
Example #36:

    (36)   Chem     elu-e-m-ew          Juan?
    what     give-inv-2sS-ds     Juan
    `What did Juan give to you?'
Example #37:

    (37)   Xoanna n-tu-y            ti libru i n-ma-wye-e-t-ew             Lisa.
    Joanna take-again-ind/3S the book poss take-appl-plpf-inv-noml-ds Lisa
    `Joanna took back the book that Lisa took away from her.' (Smeets 1989:277)
Example #38:

    (38)   a. Ay-y-mi      inche i       elu-e-t-ew       iyal Maria.
    like-ind-2sS I       1s.poss give-inv-noml-ds food Maria
    `You like Maria to give me food.'
Example #39:

    c. Chem ay-y-mi       inche i       elu-e-t-ew?
    what like-ind-2sS I        1s.poss give-inv-noml-ds
    `What are you happy that she gave to me?' (+ other (better?) interpretations?)
Example #40:

    (40)     Fey rupa-y      mi       chem-pi-nu-e-t-ew        rum.                             (=(22b))
    He pass-ind/3S 2s.poss what-say-neg-inv-noml-ds ever
    `He passed without (him) saying anything to you.'
Example #41:

    b. pe-e-lu-mu         i chaw amu-tu-y                        (Smeets 1989: 287)
    see-inv-noml-ds    poss father go-again-ind/3sS
    `When he was seen by his father, he went back.'