The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Fernando Zuniga (2002). Inverse Systems in Indigenous Languages of the Americas.

URL: http://www.dissertationen.unizh.ch/2003/zuniga/zuniga02.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3537&langcode=arn (2021-12-03).


Example #1:

    a. Truf-Truf             mle-ymu.
    T.                    be-2dIND
    `Youd live in Truftruf.'
Example #2:

    b. Petu          rue-w-i.
    still         scratch-REFL-IND
    `She is scratching herself.'
Example #3:

    Chi        pu    che        kintu-yngn       chi      mkuwe muday.
    ART        p     people     search-3pIND      ART      jar                  corn.liquor
    `This people looked for the jar with corn liquor.'
Example #4:

    a. Ngr mtrm-e-y-ew             willi.
    fox     call-E-IND-3A           otter
    `The otter called the fox / the fox was called by the otter.'
Example #5:

    b. Mtrm-e-n-ew           chi     kalku.
    call-E-1sIND-3A         ART     warlock
    `The warlock called me.'
Example #6:

    b. Kim-la-fi-n                            ti        achmalle.
    know-NEG-3O-1sIND ART                            midget
    `I do not know this midget.'                     (Smeets 1989:535)
Example #7:

    c. Rume weda-ka-ke-fu-fi                         feyti doy         nie-nu-lu.
    very        treat.badly-CONT-HAB-RI-3O        ART      more     have-NEG-LU
    `Heprox used to treat very badly thoseobv who had less [than he had].'
Example #8:

    c. Wl-i        i       ruka kie wingka            mew.
    give-IND 3POSS       house one       foreigner   PPOS
    `She gave (i.e. sold) her house to a foreigner.'         (Augusta 1916:256)
Example #9:

    d. Wl-nge-y           i      ruka kie wingka                 mew.
    give-PASS-IND      3POSS   house one         foreigner      PPOS
    `Her house was given (i.e. sold) to a foreigner.'
Example #10:

    a2. Wee-ma-ma-nge-y-mi                  waka tami         fotm.
    steal-APPL-APPL-PASS-IND-2s             cow        2sPOSS son.of.man
    `Yours son's cow was stolen / they stole yours son's cow.'
Example #11:

    b1. Wee-ma-e-y-mi-mew             tami       waka.
    steal-APPL-INV-IND-2s-3A         2sPOSS cow
    `She stole yours cow.'
Example #12:

    b2. Wee-ma-ma-e-y-mi-mew                waka tami         fotm.
    steal-APPL-APPL-INV-IND-2s-3A           cow        2sPOSS son.of.man
    `She stole yours son's cow.'
Example #13:

    Wenter i                pe]O,          [ngapitu-pe-y]V                   [i           chaw]A.
    W.           3POSS       child.of.woman take.for.wife-CERT-IND 1sPOSS father
Example #14:

    a. Yel-me-tu-a-fi-                         i          kawellu.
    bring-AND-back-FUT-3O-1sIND              3POSS       horse
    `I will go and bring him his horse back.'              (Augusta 1903:97)
Example #15:

    b. Iney kam pe-pa-e-ymi-mew?
    who    Q            see-CIS-e-2sIND-3A
    `Who came to see yous?'         (Coa 1930:248)
Example #16:

    c. Tfachi pichi m dewma la-ya-fu-lu                         iche pe-pa-e-n-ew.
    this       little    bird   already die-FUT-RI-LU 1s                 see-CIS-E-1sIND-3A
    `This little bird came to see me when I was dying.'                  (Coa 1930:
Example #17:

    d. Elel-rpa-tu-a-e-n                                 tai           kawellu.
    deliver-on.way.here-again-FUT-E-1sIND              1sPOSS         horse
    `Return to me my horse on yours way back.'                   (Augusta 1903:98)
Example #18:

    e. Pichintu            mle-me-a-n.
    a.short.while       be-AND-FUT-1sIND
    `I will go and stay a short while.'           (Augusta 1903:96)
Example #19:

    a. Mtrm-nge-n.
    `I was called / someone called me.'            (Salas 1992:133)
Example #20:

    b. Mtrm-el-nge-n          tachi trewa.
    call-BEN-PASS-1sIND ART           dog
    `They / someone set the dog on me.'             (Salas 1992:133)
Example #21:

    c. Chew i           amu-n?       Kim-nge-la-y.
    where 3POSS     go-N         know-PASS-NEG-IND
    `Where had she gone? No one knew.'                (Salas 1992:226)
Example #22:

    d. El-nge-me-y                chillka ayechi ruka mew.
    leave-PASS-AND-IND       letter         that        house PPOS
    letter in that house).' (Augusta 1903:97)
Example #23:

    e. Ye-me-nge-y              chi        machi.
    bring-AND-PASS-IND ART            shaman
    `They / someone went to bring the shaman.'                (Salas 1992:229)
Example #24:

    Kom ant lkantu-nge-ke-y                              tiechi   ruka mew.
    all      day         sing-PASS-HAB-IND                 that     house PPOS
    `All day long people sing in that house.'
Example #25:

    tai      llowtu-a-el          doy     newen      pll ...
    3POSS     receive-FUT-EL       more    powerful   spirit
    spirit ...'
Example #26:

    a. Ka katr-l-mu-a-n                ta         kie koyam.
    and cut-APPL-   MU-FUT-1sIND     PART       one      oak
    `Youd will fell an oak for me as well.'
Example #27:

    c. Katr-l-mu-me-a-n                tfa mew,          tantu-l-mu-a-n.
    cut-APPL-   MU-AND-FUT-1sIND     here PPOS          fell-APPL-   MU-FUT-1sIND
    `Youd will go and fell [it] to me there, you will fell [it] for me.'