The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Fernando Zuniga (2002). Inverse Systems in Indigenous Languages of the Americas.

URL: http://www.dissertationen.unizh.ch/2003/zuniga/zuniga02.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3537&langcode=ojc (2021-09-16).


Example #1:

    b. W-g-wbam-1-an                      aniniw-an.
    3A-PT-see-DIR-OBV                  man-OBV
    `Heprox saw a manobv.'
Example #2:

    a. Aw               aniniw      w-g-wbam-1-an                  n iw         kww-an.
    DEM:PROX       man         3A-PT-see-DIR-OBV              DEM:OBV woman-OBV
    `The manprox saw the womanobv.'
Example #3:

    a. Bbzig         n-g-wbam-1                          w-gwis-an.
    one.of       1-PT-see-DIR                        3POSS-son-OBV
    `I saw one of his          sonsobv.'
Example #4:

    a1. PASS               Gdakmn                    g-w-makam-igw1-i2-min5.
    our.land                  2-FUT-take.from-INV-ISA(anim)-1p
    `Ouri land will be taken from usi.'
Example #5:

    a3. PASS       Ms         mnw gonda nz              g-nandom-ind-w6.
    then       al so     these   two     PT-ask-   IND-3p
    `Then these two were also questioned individually.'
Example #6:

    b1. PASS       G-nangwah-ig1-zo2-w6-ag9.
    `They were buried.'
Example #7:

    c1. PASS       Minopw-igw1-izi2-w7.
    `He (e.g. a fish) tastes good.'
Example #8:

    c2. PASS       Minopw-igw1-ad2-w7.
    `It tastes good.'
Example #9:

    c. *N-g-bni-gann-igw1-i2.
    Intended: `They stopped talking to me.'
Example #10:

    f. N-g-bi-asam-igw1-i2.
    `I came to be fed.'
Example #11:

    a2. W-g-mgiskaw-igw1-an                              mitigw-an   nJohn.
    3A-PT-hit.the.mark-INV-OBV                        tree-OBV    J.
    Both: `The tree hit John.' (a1 intended)
Example #12:

    b2. W-g-mgiskaw-1-an                                 mitigw-an   nJohn.
    3A-PT-hit.the.mark-DIR-OBV                        tree-OBV    J.
    Both: `John hit the tree.' (b1 intended)
Example #13:

    e. G-mn-1-w7                       asem-an        ni-mismis.
    PT-give-DIR?-3                 tobacco-OBV    1-grandfather
    `My grandfather was given tobacco.'                            [prox, SOobv, PAS
Example #14:

    b1. *Ms     ngosi-ini6-g                n-g-sam-1.
    then     be.evening-OBV-3INAN        1-PT-feed-DIR
    Intended: `Then, in the evening, I fed him.'
Example #15:

    b2. *Ms     ngosi-ini6-g                n-g-sam-igw1.
    then     be.evening-OBV-3INAN        1-PT-feed-INV
    Intended: `Then, in the evening, he fed me.'