The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Miriam Butt (2005). Differential Case Marking Theory (DCT).

URL: http://www.hum.uit.no/a/svenonius/papers/Butt05CaseHO.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3624&langcode=urd (2021-06-15).


Example #1:

    (3 ) a . ra m            g a ri    cala-ta         (h)
    Ram.M.Sg.Nom car.M.Sg.Nom drive-Impf.M.Sg be.Pres.3.Sg
    `Ram drives a car.'
Example #2:

    b. ram=ne         g a ri       cala-yi         (h)
    Ram.M.Sg=Erg car.M.Sg.Nom drive-Perf.M.F.Sg be.Pres.3.Sg
    `Ram has driven a/the car.'
Example #3:

    (5) a. nadya=ne       k hani          yad       k-i
    Nadya.F.Sg=Erg story.F.Sg.Nom memory do-Perf.F.Sg
    `Nadya remembered the story (actively).'
Example #4:

    (2 0 ) a . ra m            g a ri    c la-ta         (h)
    Ram.M.Sg.Nom car.M.Sg.Nom drive-Impf.M.Sg be.Pres.3.Sg
    `Ram drives a car.'
Example #5:

    c. nadya=ko         k hani           yad    a-yi
    Nadya.F.Sg=Dat story.F.Sg.Nom     memory come-Perf.F.Sg
    `Nadya remembered the story.'
Example #6:

    b. nadya=ne          aj    lahor=se    fon    ki-ya
    Nadya.F.Sg=Erg to day Lahore=Inst phone do-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya called from Lahore to day.'
Example #7:

    c. sÍnar=ne              sone=se            har               b na-ya
    goldsmith.M.Sg=Erg gold.M.Sg.Obl=Inst necklace.M.Sg.Nom make-Perf.M.Sg
    `The goldsmith made a necklace out of the gold.'
Example #8:

    (29) a. vo         gir ja-e-g-i
    Pron.3.Sg fall go-3.Sg-Fut-F.Sg
    `She will fall.'
Example #9:

    b. us=se            gir-a        ja-e-g-a
    Pron.3.Sg=Inst fall-Perf.M.Sg go-3.Sg-Fut-M.Sg
    `She will be able to fall.'
Example #10:

    b. nadya=ne           jiraf=ko               dekh -na       h
    Nadya.F.Sg=Erg     giraffe.M.Sg=Acc       see-Inf.M.Sg   be.Pres.3.Sg
    `Nadya wants to   see the giraffe.'