The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Peter J. Binkert (1996). The Cognitive Foundations of Language.

URL: http://chars.lin.oakland.edu/General/cfl60.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3642&langcode=jpn (2022-01-26).


Example #1:

    a.   Mary­wa Tokyo­ni itta.
    Mary      Tokyo­to went
    `Mary went to/toward Tokyo.'
Example #2:

    b.   Mary­wa sensei­ni           tegami­o     kaku.
    Mary       teacher­to       letter       writes
    `Mary writes a letter to the teacher.'
Example #3:

    c.   John­ni    eiga­ga      omoshiroi
    John to    movie        is interesting
    `The movie is interesting to John.'
Example #4:

    (68)     a.    Hon­ga tsukue­ni aru.                   LOCATIVE
    book    desk         be
    `The book is on the desk.'
Example #5:

    b.    kyaku­ga genkan­ni iru.                 ADESSIVE
    guest       door         be
    `The guest is at the door.'
Example #6:

    c.    Mary­wa ie­ni        kakekonda.         ILLATIVE
    Mary       house ran
    `Mary ran into the house.'
Example #7:

    d.    Mary­wa Tokyo­ni itta.                  ALLATIVE
    Mary      Tokyo       went
    `Mary went to Tokyo.'
Example #8:

    (113)    John­ni tennis­ga tanoshii.                                  AFFECTIVE
    John    tennis        enjoyable
    `To John, tennis is enjoyable./John enjoys tennis.'
Example #9:

    (114)    John­wa Mary­ni hon­o yatta.                                 AFFERENTIAL
    John        Mary         book gave
    `John gave the book to Mary.'
Example #10:

    (115)    John­wa sensei­ni natta.                                      RESULTATIVE
    John       teacher     became
    `John became a teacher.'
Example #11:

    John­ga musuko­o isha­ni sita.                                RESULTATIVE
    John       son         doctor made
    `John made his son a doctor.'
Example #12:

    (116)    Sono eiga­wa dai­hyooban­ni natta.                            TERMINATIVE
    that movie big­popularity became
    `That movie became very popular.'
Example #13:

    (117)    Mary­ni eigo­ga hanas­eru.                                    REFERENTIAL
    Mary          English speak­can
    `Mary can speak English.'
Example #14:

    (118)    John­wa Mary­ni hon­o katteyatta.                             BENEFACTIVE
    John       Mary           book   bought
    `John bought the book for Mary.'
Example #15:

    (119)    Mary­wa America­ni benkyoo­ni iku.                            PURPOSIVE
    Mary       America           studying    goes
    `Mary is going to America for studying.'
Example #16:

    (109)    a.    Mary­wa machi­kara (ABSENTIVE) dete­iru.
    Mary       town­from           outside of­is
    `Mary is outside of the town.'
Example #17:

    b.    Kare­no namae­wa meibo­kara (ABESSIVE)                  hazus­arete­iru.
    he­of      name        list­from                        is excluded
    `His name is removed (stative) from the list.'
Example #18:

    c.    okane­ga handobakku­kara (ELATIVE) ochita.
    money     purse­out of             fell
    `The money fell out of the purse.'
Example #19:

    d.    kare­wa ie­kara (ABLATIVE) shirizoita/itta.
    he         house­from            withdrew/went
    `He withdrew/went from the house.'
Example #20:

    (110)    a.    Kare­wa kanojo­kara (EFFECTIVE) manabu.
    he          her­from            learns
    `He learns from her.'
Example #21:

    b.    Kare­wa kanojo­kara (EFFERENTIAL) sore­o katta.
    he         her­from               it     bought
    `He bought it from her.'
Example #22:

    c.    Kare­wa ie­o       ki­kara (COMPOSITIONAL)               tsukutta.
    he         house wood­from                               made
    `He made a house out of wood.'
Example #23:

    d.    Kashi­wa donguri­kara (ORIGINATIVE)                detekuru.
    oak        acorn­from                              grows out
    `An oak grows out of an acorn.'
Example #24:

    (112)    a.    Mary­wa empitsu­de (INSTRUMENTAL)                  kaku.
    Mary       pencil­with                             writes
    `Mary writes with a pencil.'
Example #25:

    b.    Mary­wa denshya­de (EXPEDIENTIAL)                  kaeru
    Mary       train­by                                returns
    `Mary returns by train.'
Example #26:

    c.    Mary­wa gan­de (CAUSAL) shinda.
    Mary       cancer­of    died
    `Mary died of cancer.'
Example #27:

    d.    Mary­wa bitamin­busoku­de (CAUSAL) byooki­ni kakatta.
    Mary         vitamin­lack­from             illness­to fell
    `Mary fell ill from a vitamin deficiency.'
Example #28:

    (113)     Mary­wa fuchuui­kara (CAUSAL) ziko­ni               atta.
    Mary       carelessness­from          accident­in was
    `Mary had an accident because of her carelessness.'
Example #29:

    (114)     Nohara­jyuu­ga hana­de              ippaida.
    field­all over      flowers­with be plentiful
    `The field is filled with flowers.'
Example #30:

    (158)    a.    John­ga                Mary­o                but­ta.
    John­nominative        Mary­accusative       hit
    `John hit Mary.'
Example #31:

    (159)    a.    Taroo­ga            Hanako­ni             hon­o           okutta.
    Taro­nominative     Hanako­dative         book­accusative sent
    `Taro sent Hanako a book.'