ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Amanda Seidl and Alexis Dimitriadis (2002). Statives and Reciprocal Morphology in Swahili.

URL: http://www.let.uu.nl/~alexis.dimitriadis/personal/papers/stative-paris02.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3693&langcode=swh (2021-06-14).

 

Example #1:

    (1) I-na-sem-ek-an-a               kuwa idadi  yao ni . . .                               Shepardson 1986
    SM-Pres-say-Stat-Recip-FV that numbers their are . . .
    `It is said that their numbers are . . . '
Example #2:

    b. mtu a-li-ye-chelew-esh-w-a              na Juma
    person SM-Past-Rel-be.late-Caus-Pass-FV by Juma
    `The person who was made late by Juma'
Example #3:

    (3) a. Ni lazima u-som-e.
    is necessary SM-read-Subjunc
    `It's necessary that you study.'
Example #4:

    b. Sem-e-ni!
    speak-VH-Plur
    `Speak (pl)!'
Example #5:

    c. Ha-on-i               kitu.
    Neg.SM-see-NegFV thing
    `He didn't see anything.'
Example #6:

    (4) a. Msichana a-me-vunj-a            kikombe.
    girl       SM-Perf-break-FV cup
    `The girl has broken the cup.'
Example #7:

    b. Kikombe ki-me-vunj-ik-a.
    cup        SM-Perf-break-Stat-FV
    `The cup is broken/breakable.'
Example #8:

    c. Barua hii i-me-som-ek-a.                                                                Driever (1976)
    letter this SM-Perf-read-Stat-FV
    `This letter could be read easily.'
Example #9:

    (5) som-esh-ek-a
    study-Caus-Stat-FV
    `be taught /teachable'
Example #10:

    (6) a.   Pili a-li-pig-w-a         na Juma.
    Pili SM-Past-hit-Pass-FV by Juma
    `Pili was hit by Juma.'
Example #11:

    b. * Kikombe ki-me-vunj-ik-a           na msichana.
    cup         SM-Perf-break-Stat-FV by girl
    * `The cup is broken by the girl.'
Example #12:

    (7) I-na-tambu-lik-a         kuwa Juma a-na-m-penda Pili.
    SM-Pres-know-Stat-FV that Juma SM-Pres-OM-love Pili
    `It is known that Juma loves Pili.'
Example #13:

    (8) A-na-tambul-ik-an-a
    SM-Pres-know-Stat-Recip-FV
    `She is well-known (famous).'
Example #14:

    (9) a. A-na-tambul-ik-a.
    SM-Pres-know-Stat-FV
    `She is knowable.'
Example #15:

    (10) a. A-na-tambul-ik-an-a.
    SM-Pres-know-Stat-Recip-FV
    `She is well-known (famous).'
Example #16:

    b. A-na-tambul-ik-an-a                   na mjini.
    SM-Pres-know/realize-Stat-Recip-FV by town
    `She is well-known by the town (the townspeople).'
Example #17:

    (11) Hu-on-ek-an-a               na watu siku hizi.
    Neg+SM-see-Stat-Recip-FV by people days these
    `You haven't been seen around by people these days.'
Example #18:

    (19) a. Kitabu ki-li-kuwa ki-me-zungumz-ik-a                 sana katika miaka ya 70. A. Omar, p.c.
    book SM-Past-be SM-Perf-discuss-Stat-FV very in                  year of 70
    `The book was being much talked about in the '70s.'
Example #19:

    b. i-li-sem-ek-a           jana        kuwa . . .
    SM-Past-say-Stat-FV yesterday that . . .
    `It was said yesterday that . . . '
Example #20:

    c. * i-li-sem-ek-a            jana       saa kumi na nusu kuwa . . .
    SM-Past-say-Stat-FV yesterday time ten and half that . . .
    `It was said yesterday at four thirty that . . . '
Example #21:

    (21) a. A-li-kuwa a-me-ji-fun-ik-a                blanketi kuukuu sana.               HCS
    SM-Past-be SM-Perf-Refl-cover-Stat-FV blanket big          very
    `She had covered herself with a very big blanket.'
Example #22:

    b. Chakula ki-li-kuwa ki-me-pik-ik-a           sana.
    food     SM-Pst-be SM-Perf-cook-Stat-FV very
    `The food was being much cooked.'
Example #23:

    c. Kitabu ki-li-kuwa ki-me-zungumz-ik-a          sana katika miaka ya 70. A. Omar, p.c.
    book SM-Past-be SM-Perf-discuss-Stat-FV very in           year of 70
    `The book was being much talked about in the '70s.'
Example #24:

    (24) a. Pa-me-vunj-ik-wa         sahani meza-ni.                      Shepardson (1986)
    Loc-Perf-break-Stat-Pass plate table-on
    `On the table was broken a plate.'
Example #25:

    b. Sydna Abubakr a-ka-mimin-ik-wa        na machozi kwa furaha     ...
    Sydna Abubakr SM-Seq-pour-Stat-Pass by tears     of happiness
    `And Sydna Abubakr was trickled down upon by tears of happiness . . . '
Example #26:

    (25) I-na-on-ek-an-a           kwamba . . .
    SM-Pres-see-Stat-Recip-FV that
    `It seems that . . . '
Example #27:

    (28) a. Chombo hiki ki-na-safir-ik-a          vizuri.
    boat     this SM-Pres-travel-Stat-FV well
    `This boat travels well.'
Example #28:

    b. Kitanda ki-na-lal-ik-a          vizuri.
    bed     SM-Pres-sleep-Stat-FV well
    `The bed sleeps well.'
Example #29:

    c. Godoro li-na-lal-ika.
    mattress SM-Pres-sleep-Stat-FV
    `This mattress can be slept on.'
Example #30:

    (4c) Barua hii i-me-som-ek-a                                                                      Driever (1976)
    letter this SM-Perf-read-Stat-FV
    `This letter could be read easily/is readable'
Example #31:

    (36) a. * Chungu      ki-li-pig-ik-a          kwa nyundo.                            Swahili, A. Omar, p.c.
    cooking-pot SM-Past-break-Stat-FV with hammer
    `The cooking pot was hit with a hammer.'
Example #32:

    b. * Kuku ki-li-pik-ik-a            kwa kijungu hiki.
    chicken SM-Past-cook-Stat-FV with little-pot this
    `The chicken was cookable with this little pot.'
Example #33:

    c.   A-li-chom-ek-a         kwa maneno haya.                                                        HCS
    SM-Past-stab-Stat-FV with words these
    `He was stabbed by these words.'
Example #34:

    (39) a. A-na-tambul-ik-a
    SM-Pres-know-Stat-FV
    `She is knowable.'
Example #35:

    b. A-na-tambul-ik-an-a         na mjini.
    SM-Pres-know-Stat-Recip-FV by town
    `She is known by the town.'
Example #36:

    (43) a.       Kikombe ki-me-vunj-ik-a.
    cup      SM-Perf-break-Stat-FV
    `The cup is broken.'
Example #37:

    b. * I-me-vunj-ik-a             kikombe.
    SM-Perf-break-Stat-FV cup
    * `Is broken a cup.'
Example #38:

    c. I-li-sem-ek-a          jana         kuwa . . .
    SM-Past-say-Stat-FV yesterday that . . .
    `It was said yesterday that . . . '
Example #39:

    d. Kitanda ki-na-lal-ik-a              vizuri.
    bed       SM-Pres-sleep-Stat-FV well
    `The bed sleeps well.'
Example #40:

    (44) a. Wa-li-on-an-a.
    SM-Past-see-Recip-FV
    `They saw each other.'
Example #41:

    (i) a. A-li-ji-on-a.
    SM-Past-Refl-see-FV
    `He saw himself.'
Example #42:

    d. Ugonjwa hu-fuat-ana         na upotevu wa maisha.                      Swahili, SSED
    sickness SM-follow-Recip with waste of life
    `Sickness follows from a life of profligacy'
Example #43:

    (51) a. Sahani z-ote zi-me-vunj-ik-ana.
    plate 10-all SM-Perf-break-Stat-Recip
    'All the plates have been smashed up together.'
Example #44:

    b. Wa-li-somesh-ek-ana.
    SM-Past-teach-Stat-Recip
    `They were taught together.'
Example #45:

    c. -fum-u-k-ana
    -weave.together-Reversive-Stat-Recip
    `to disperse' (of a crowd)26
Example #46:

    d. Wa-na-bingiri-ana.
    SM-Pres-roll-Recip
    `They're rolling together.'
Example #47:

    e. -bagu-k-ana
    separate-Stat-Recip
    `to quarrel among each other, be divided into factions'
Example #48:

    (52) a. Darasa li-na-shiriki-ana            ku-andika mchezo.                                     A. Shariff, p.c.
    class SM-Pres-participate-Recip to-write play
    `The class participates together in writing the play.'
Example #49:

    b. Wa-na-furahi-ana.                                                                     Dammann (1954)
    SM-Pres-be.happy-Recip
    `They are happy together.'
Example #50:

    c. -fany-ana kazi                                                                                      SSED
    do-Recip work
    `to work together'
Example #51:

    d. -l-ana                                                                                              SSED
    eat-Recip
    `to eat together'
Example #52:

    (53) a. Maji ya-me-gand-am-an-a.                                                                  Ashton (1944)
    water SM-Perf-coagulate-Static-Recip-FV
    `The water is frozen.'
Example #53:

    b. Mwitu i-me-fung-am-an-a.
    forest SM-Perf-tie-Static-Recip-FV
    `The forest is impenetrable.'
Example #54:

    (i) Hapana neno li-li-lo-fich-am-an-a             na Mwenyiezi Mungu.
    no      word SM-Pst-Rel-hide-Static-Recip-FV with almighty god
    `There is no word which may be hidden from almighty god.'
Example #55:

    (55) a. A-na-tambul-ik-a        (*na mjini).
    SM-Pres-know-Stat-FV by town
    `She is knowable (*by the townspeople).'
Example #56:

    b. A-na-tambul-ik-an-a            (na mjini).
    SM-Pres-know-Stat-Recip-FV by town
    `She is well-known (by the townspeople).'
Example #57:

    c. Hu-on-ek-an-i                na watu siku hizi.
    Neg+SM-see-Stat-Recip-FV by people days these
    `You haven't been seen around by people these days.'
Example #58:

    (56) a. Juma na Pili wa-na-pend-an-a.
    Juma and Pili SM-Pres-love-Recip-FV
    `Juma and Pili love each other.'
Example #59:

    (57) * Juma wa-na-pend-an-a            na Pili
    Juma SM-Pres-love-Recip-FV with Pili
    `Juma and Pili love each other.'
Example #60:

    (63) a. Ni-li-shind-an-a             na Mike Tyson.                                A. Shariff, p.c.
    SM-Past-overcome-Recip-FV with Mike Tyson
    `I competed with Mike Tyson.'
Example #61:

    b. A-li-ni-shind-an-ish-a               na Mike Tyson.
    SM-Past-OM-overcome-Recip-Caus-FV with Mike Tyson
    `He made me compete with Mike Tyson.'
Example #62:

    (71) Juma na Pili wa-li-l-ana.
    Juma and Pili SM-Past-eat-Recip
    `Juma and Pili ate together.'
Example #63:

    (10b) A-na-tambul-ik-an-a                  na mjini.
    SM-Pres-know/realize-Stat-Recip-FV by town
    `She is well-known by the townspeople.'
Example #64:

    (8) A-na-tambul-ik-an-a.
    SM-Pres-know-Stat-Recip-FV
    `She is well-known (famous).'
Example #65:

    (51b) Wa-li-somesh-ek-ana.
    SM-Past-teach-Stat-Recip
    `They were taught together.'