The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

SHIGERU MIYAGAWA and MARIA BABYONYSHEV (2004). The EPP, Unaccusativity, and the Resultative Constructions in Japanese.

URL: http://web.mit.edu/miyagawa/www/pdfs/EPP_Unaccusative_Result.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3718&langcode=jpn (2022-01-26).


Example #1:

    (2) a. Taroo-ga mado-o            aketa.
    Taro-Nom window-Acc open-Past
    `Taro opened the window'
Example #2:

    b. Mado-ga         akete aru.
    window-Nom open is
    `The window has been opened'
Example #3:

    (i) Heya-ni terebi-ga aru.
    room-in TV-Nom is
    `There is a TV in the room.'
Example #4:

    (ii) Taroo-ni (wa)     musume-ga       aru.
    Taro-Dat (Top) daughter-Nom       is
    `Taro has a daughter.'
Example #5:

    (3)   Taroo-ga mado-o          akete aru.
    Taro-Nom window-Acc open is
    `Taro has opened the window.'
Example #6:

    (4)   a. Kusuri-ga      sukosi nonde aru.
    medicine-Nom a bit     take    is
    `The medicine has been taken'
Example #7:

    b. Hanako-wa sono kusuri-o           nonde aru.
    Hanako-Top that medicine-Acc take       is
    `Hanako has taken that medicine'
Example #8:

    (6) a. Kurumai-ga [VP       doroboo-ni ti ni-dai       nusum-are ]-ta
    carsi-Nom [VP       thief-by      ti 2-CL      steal-passive ]-PAST
    `Two cars were    stolen by a thief'
Example #9:

    b. *Gakusei-ga        [VP hon-o         san-nin   kat] -ta
    students-Nom      [VP book-acc 3-CL           buy] -PAST
    `Three students   bought a book'
Example #10:

    (7)   Honi- ga     tukue-no-ue-ni     ti san-satu        oite    aru.
    books-Nom desk-Gen-top-on t 3-CL                   place   is
    `Three books have been placed on the desk'
Example #11:

    (8)   Hanako-ga      tukue-no-ue-ni      hon-o    san-satu         oite aru.
    Hanako-Nom desk-Gen-top-on book-Acc 3-CL                     place is
    `Hanako has placed three books on the desk'
Example #12:

    (9)   a.    [VP kuruma-o uri-] sae
    car-acc      sell -even
    `even sell a car'
Example #13:

    b. * [TP Taroo-ga konpyuutaa-o naosita ] -sae
    Taro-Nom computer-Acc repaired -even
    `Even Taro repaired the computer'
Example #14:

    c. Taro-ga [VP Hanako-ni      hon-o age] -sae                                 sita.
    Taro-nom [VP Hanako-Dat book-Acc give] -even                               did
    *`Even Taro gave Hanako a book'
Example #15:

    (10) a. Honi-ga      [ tukue-no-ue-ni ti oite ]                      -sae aru.
    booki-Nom [ desk-Gen-top-on ti place ]                       -even is
    `Even books are placed on the desk'
Example #16:

    b. Taroo-ga     honi-o     [tukue-no-ue-ni                        ti oite ]-sae aru.
    Taroo-Nom booki-Acc [desk-Gen-top-on                           ti place ] -even is
    `Taro even put books on the desk'
Example #17:

    (12) a. John-wa      baabon-dake-o        nom-e-ru.
    John-Top     bourbon-only-Acc drink-pot(ential)-pres
    *only>can      `It is only bourbon that John can drink'
Example #18:

    b. John-wa      baabon-dake-ga        nom-e-ru.
    John-Top     bourbon-only-Nom drink-pot-pres
    only > can      `It is only bourbon that John can drink'
Example #19:

    (13)   Baabon-dake-o           nonde      aru.
    bourbon-only-Acc        drink      is
    `It is only bourbon    (straight   bourbon) that has been drunk.'
Example #20:

    (14)   Baabon-dake-ga            nonde      aru
    bourbon-only-Nom          drink      is
    `It is only drinking   bourbon     that has occurred.'
Example #21:

    (16) idiom: sigoto-o     sewasuru
    work-Acc take:care
    `introduce (someone) to a job'
Example #22:

    a. Kare-ni sigoto-ga sewas-are-ta. (passive)
    he-to     work-Acc take:care-Pass-Past
    `A job was introduced to him.'
Example #23:

    b. Kare-ni(-wa) (mou)         sigoto-ga sewasite aru.
    he-to(-Top) (already) work-Nom take:care is
    `A job has (already) been introduced to him.'
Example #24:

    (17) idiom: mendoo-o miru
    care-Acc see
    `to take care of somebody'
Example #25:

    a. *Kare-no kodomo-no mendoo-ga            mi-rare-ta. (passive)
    he-Gen child-Gen care-Nom              see
    `His child has been taken care of.'
Example #26:

    b. *Kare-no kodomo-no mendoo-ga           mite aru.
    he-Gen child-Gen care-Nom             see is
    `His child has been taken care of.'
Example #27:

    c. ?Kare-no kodomo-no mendoo-o mite aru.
    he-Gen child-Gen care-Acc see is
    `His child has been taken care of.'
Example #28:

    (18) a. Hanakoi-ga zibuni-no hon-o              yonda.
    Hanakoi-Nom selfi-Gen book-Acc read
    `Hanako read self's book.'
Example #29:

    b. Tarooi-ga      zibuni-no sensei-ni sikar-are-ta.
    Taroi-Nom selfi-Gen teacher-by scold-Pass-Past
    `Taro was scolded by self's teacher.'
Example #30:

    (19)      *Hanakoi-ga zibuni-no sensei-ni         ti syookaisite aru.
    Hanakoi-Nom selfi-Gen teacher-Dat ti introduce         is
    `Hanako has been introduced to self's teacher'
Example #31:

    (20)     Tarooi-ga Hanakoi-ga zibuni/*j-no kuruma-de okur-are-ru.
    Taro-Nom Hanako-Nom self-Gen car-by             take-can-Present
    `Taro was able to take Hanako by his/*her own car.'
Example #32:

    (i) (?) Tabuchii-ga      zibuni-no negai doori-ni       daida-ni       totte aru koto.
    Tabuchi-Nom self-Gen wish in-the-way pinch-hitter take is thing
    `the fact that someone is in the state of keeping Tabuchii as a pinch-hitter, as
Example #33:

    (21) a. Boku-wa yado-o        kinoo     yoyakusi-te aru.
    I-Top     room-Acc yesterday reserve       is
    `I've reserved the room yesterday.'
Example #34:

    (3) a. Kusuri-ga      sukosi nonde aru.
    medicine-Nom a bit      take is
    `The medicine has been taken'