The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Shigeru Miyagawa (2003). Historical Development of the Accusative Case Marking in Japanese as Seen in Classical Literary Text.

URL: http://ling.cornell.edu/japanese_historical_linguistics/Miyagawa%20&%20Ekida%202002.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3773&langcode=jpn (2022-01-19).


Example #1:

    (1)    Taroo-ga         sakana-o tabeta.
    Taro-Nom         fish-Acc ate
    `Taro ate fish.'
Example #2:

    (4)    a. sakana-o       taberu
    fish-Acc        eat
    `(I) eat fish.'
Example #3:

    b. taberu sakana
    eat       fish
    `the fish (that I) eat'
Example #4:

    (28)   a. Taroo-ga      Hanako-ga      tensai-da         to          omotteiru.
    Taro-Nom      Hanako-Nom genius-Cop            clever      Comp think
    `Taro thinks Hanako is a genius.'
Example #5:

    (30)   Taroo-ga       orokanimo      Hanako-ga      tensai-da      to   omotteiru.
    Taro-Nom       stupidly       Hanako-Nom genius-Cop         Comp think
    `Taro stupidly thinks that Hanako is a genius.'
Example #6:

    (31)   a. *Taroo-ga       Hanako-ga     orokanimo       tensai-da      to   omotteiru.
    Taro-Nom       Hanako-Nom stupidly           genius-Cop     Comp think
    `Taro stupidly thinks Hanako is a genius.'
Example #7:

    (35)   *Taroo-wa     tensai-da to           Hanako-o   omotta.
    Taro-Top genius-Cop Comp            Hanako-Acc thought
    `Taro thought that Hanako is a genius.'
Example #8:

    (38)   Hanako-ga    Taroo-ni          atta.
    Hanako-Nom Taro-Dat            met
    `Hanako met Taro.'
Example #9:

    (42)   Taroo-ga      kodomo-o         nak-ase-ta.
    Taro-Nom      child-Acc        cry-Cause-Past
    `Taro made the child cry.'
Example #10:

    (43)   ko-to      tuma(-to)-o         oi-te                 (modern Japanese)
    child-and wife-and-Acc         leave-Conj
    leaving the wife and the child (behind)'
Example #11:

    (45) *Taroo-wa      Hanako-o          hon-o              yom-ase-ta.
    Taro-Top     Hanako-Acc        book-Acc           read-Cause-Past
    `Taro made Hanako read a book.'
Example #12:

    (46) *Honi-wa     Taroo-wa      Hanako-o     ei yom-ase-ta.
    Booki-Top Taro-Top       Hanako-Acc ei read-Cause-Past
    `As for books, Taro made Hanako read.'
Example #13:

    (51)   Taroo-ga        Hanako-o   sanpo-saseta no-wa             hamabe-o       da.
    Taro-Nom        Hanako-Acc walk-Cause                     beach-Acc      Cop
    `The place where Taro made Hanako take a walk is the beach.'
Example #14:

    (52)   *Taroo-ga    Hanako-o       yom-ase-ta      no-wa          atarasii ronbun-o      da.
    Taro-Nom Hanako-Acc read-Cause-Past                       new article-Acc        Cop
    `What I made Hanako read is a new article.'
Example #15:

    b. kai theleis to kerdaisein                 (Call. 987 (14 c.))
    and 2sg     it gain(inf.)
    `And you will gain it.'
Example #16:

    (80)   okonai-nado        suru-ni dani (432, 12)
    suggestion-such    do although
    `although we give (Izumi Shikibu) suggestions'
Example #17:

    (83)   a. benkyoo-o suru
    study-Acc do
Example #18:

    omohi-tamahi-kemu (36,11)
    think-honor-past speculative
    `why did I feel my previous visits as such an honor'
Example #19:

    (146) (hon-o)    kazukazu            yonda.
    (book-Acc) many                   read
    `(I) read many (books)'
Example #20:

    (154) sono yoshi         isasaka     mono-ni       kakitsuku (Tosa, 27, 4)
    thatcircumstance little      thing-upon    write down
    `(I) write down few things about that circumstance (that trip) on paper.'
Example #21:

    (155) kefu kuruma Kyau he tori ni yaru (Tosa, 56, 10)
    today vehicle capital         take send
    `Today (I) sent (someone) to pick up a vehicle'
Example #22:

    (161) Kinmonkyoo-o              wataru
    Golden Gate Bridge-Acc cross
    `(I) cross the Golden Gate Bridge.'
Example #23:

    (162) Ohominato-o     ofu (Tosa, 31, 1)
    Ohominato-Acc head to
    `We headed to Ohominato'
Example #24:

    (i)   Kabu-wa         katta.
    stocks-Top      bought
    `As for stocks, (I) bought (them).'
Example #25:

    (ii)      Watasi-ga            katta.
    I-Nom                bought
    `I bought (it).'
Example #26:

    (iii)     Watasi-ga      kuruma-ga      kai-tai.
    I-Nom          car-Nom        buy-want
    `I want to buy a car.'
Example #27:

    (iv)      Kimi-wa nani ___ katta no?
    you-Top what        bought Q
    `What did you buy?'
Example #28:

    (i)      Hanako-wa        hon-mo katta.
    Hanako-Top       book-too bought
    `Hanako bought a book, too.'