The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Kamil Ud Deen (2003). Subject Agreement, Object Agreement and Specificity in Swahili.

URL: http://www2.hawaii.edu/~kamil/Deen_GALA2004.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3805&langcode=swh (2021-09-26).


Example #1:

    (2)        Juma     a - na - m ­ pend - a        Mariam                    S-V-O
    Juma      SA3s-PRES- OA3s- like ­ IND Mariam
    "Juma likes Mariam"
Example #2:

    (4)   a. Juma a ­ li ­ mw ­on ­ a m ­ tu                       Specific Reading
    Juma SA3s­past­OA3s­see­IND 1­person
    "Juma saw the person / *a person"
Example #3:

    b. Juma a ­ li ­ on ­ a m ­ tu                           Non-specific Reading
    Juma SA3s­past­see­IND 1­person
    "Juma saw a person / *the person"
Example #4:

    (5)       Juma a ­ li ­ on ­ a m ­ tu                                   Non-specific reading
    Juma sa3s­past­see­ind 1­person
    "Juma saw a person / *the person"