ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Nadezhda Vinokurova (2005). Lexical Categories and Argument Structure.

URL: http://www.cs.chalmers.se/~harald2/grammars/sakha.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3806&langcode=sah (2021-06-13).

 

Example #1:

    (13)     a.         Armija kuorat-y bosxoloo-to.
    Army town-acc liberate-past.3
    `The army liberated the town.'
Example #2:

    b.         Armija kuorat-y bosxoloo-hun-a
    Army town-acc liberate-nominalizer-3
    `the army's liberation of the town'
Example #3:

    (14)     a.         kyhyl uonna saharxaj sibekki-ler
    red and yellow flower-pl
    `red and yellow flowers'
Example #4:

    b.         kyhyl uonna saharxaj sibekki-ler-dee
    red and yellow flower-pl-verbalizer
    `provide with red and yellow flowers'
Example #5:

    (44)     a.      Sardaana kinige-ni aaq-ar.
    Sardaana book-acc read-aor
    `Sardaana reads the book.'
Example #6:

    b.       kinige-ni aaq-yy
    book-acc read-nom
    `reading the book'
Example #7:

    c.       Sardaana kinige-ni aaq-yy-ta
    Sardaana book-acc read-nom-3
    `Sardaana's reading the book'
Example #8:

    (45)       a.         Sardaana Lena-qa Erel-i möx-tör-dö.
    Sardaana Lena-dat Erel-acc scold-caus-past.3
    `Sardaana made Lena scold Erel.'
Example #9:

    b.         Lena-qa Erel-i möx-tör-üü / Sargy Lena-qa Erel-i möx-tör-üü-te
    L.-dat E.-acc scold-caus-nom / S. L.-dat E.-acc scold-caus-nom-3
    `making Lena scold Erel / Sardaana's making Lena scold Erel'
Example #10:

    (46)       a.         Keskil tal-ylyn-na.
    Keskil choose-pass-past.3
    `Keskil was chosen.'
Example #11:

    (47)     Terilte-ni salaj-aaccy kel-le.
    Company-acc manage-nomagent come-past.3
    `The manager of the company came.'
Example #12:

    (49)     a.       Redaktsija-qa suruj-aaccy-laa-ty-byt.
    Editorial.office-dat write-nomagent-verb-past-1pl
    `We worked as writers at the editorial office.'
Example #13:

    b.         Redaktsija-ny suruj-aaccy-laa-ty-byt.
    Editorial.office-acc write-nomagent-verb-past-1pl
    `We provided the editorial office with a writer.'
Example #14:

    (54)     a.       Sargy itii-ni tuluj-ar.
    Sargy heat-acc endure-aor
    `Sargy endures heat.'
Example #15:

    b.       Sargy itii-ni tuluj-umtuo.
    Sargy heat-acc endure-able
    `Sargy is capable of enduring heat.'
Example #16:

    b.         Massyyna Sargy ubaj-yn *(kien-e).
    car Sargy brother-gen *(KIEN-3)
    `The car is Sargy's brother's.'
Example #17:

    c.         En kiniene-qin (kini kien-e-qin).
    You his/hers-2sg (s/he KIEN-3-2sg)
    `You are his/hers.'
Example #18:

    (8)        a.         En massyyna-laax-xyn / tiis-teex-xin / edjiij-deex-xin.
    You car-LAAX-2sg / tooth-LAAX-2sg / sister-LAAX-2sg
    `You have a car/ teeth4 / a sister.'
Example #19:

    Min lotereja-qa süüj-büt-teex-pin.
    I lottery-dat win-rem.past-LAAX-1sg
    `By the way, there was an episode in the past when I won in the lottery.'
Example #20:

    Min lotereja-qa süüj-büt-teex e-ti-m.
    I lottery-dat win-rem.past-LAAX aux-past-1sg
    lottery.'
Example #21:

    Min kinige atyylah-ar-daax-pyn.
    I book buy-aorist-LAAX-1sg
    `I must buy a book.'
Example #22:

    Min kinige atyylah-yax-taax-pyn.
    I book buy-future-LAAX-1sg
    `I must buy a book.'
Example #23:

    (15)          a.          Sardaana-laax Keskil kel-li-ler/*kel-le.
    Sardaana-LAAX Keskil come-past-pl/*come-past.3
    `Sardaana and Keskil came.'
Example #24:

    b.          Sardaana-laax kel-li-ler/*kel-le.
    Sardaana-LAAX come-past-pl/*come-past.3
    `Sardaana and {her folks/another person(s)} came.'
Example #25:

    (16)          a.          En massyyna-/tiih-i/edjiij-i baar.
    You car-2sg/tooth-2sg/elder.sister-2sg copulaEXIST
    `You have a car/teeth/an elder sister.'
Example #26:

    b.          En kinige-ler-i/edjiij-der-i baal-lar/baar.
    You book-pl-2sg/elder.sister-pl-2sg copulaEXIST-pl/copulaEXIST
    `You have books/elder sisters.'
Example #27:

    (17)     Ej-iexe massyyna-/tiih-i/edjiij-i baar.
    You-dat car-2sg/tooth-2sg/elder.sister-2sg copula   EXIST
    `You have a car/teeth/an elder sister.'
Example #28:

    (18)     a.       Toqo bügün uruok-ka en kinige- kirtij-de-j?
    Why today lesson-dat you book-2sg become.dirty-past.3-Q
    `Why did your book become dirty today at the lesson?'
Example #29:

    en/ej-iexe kinige- suoq-uj?
    you/you-dat book-2sg neg.copulaEXIST-Q
    been to the library]?'
Example #30:

    b.       Ookko/Ookko-qo urukku balaqan-a baar.
    Ookko/Ookko-dat former house-3 copulaEXIST
    'Ookko has his former house.'
Example #31:

    (22)         a.         Mende telgehe-ni xaar-daa-ta.
    Mende yard-acc snow-LAA-past.3
    'Mende cleared the yard of snow.'
Example #32:

    b.         Mende soluur-u xaar-daa-ta.
    Mende bucket-acc snow-LAA-past.3
    `Mende filled the bucket with snow (e.g. to boil it).'
Example #33:

    (42)           *Sardaana-qa kuorak-ka ebee-te/djie-te baar.
    Sardaana-dat town-dat grandmother-3/house-3 copulaEXIST
    `Sardaana has a grandmother/house in the town.'
Example #34:

    (44)     Min ejiigin massyyna- baar dien ihit-ti-m.
    I you.acc car-2sg copulaEXIST DIEN hear-past-1sg
    `I heard that you have a car.'
Example #35:

    (47)     Min kinige-ni oloppos-ko baar dien bil-e-bin.
    I book-acc chair-dat copulaEXIST DIEN know-aor-1sg
    `I know that the book is on the chair.'
Example #36:

    (49)     a.       Ookko-  qo urukku balaqan-a baar.
    Ookko-  dat former house-3 copulaEXIST
    `Ookko  has his former house.'
Example #37:

    a.       Sardaana/Sardaana-qa kinige-ler-e baal-lar/baar.
    Sardaana/Sardaana-dat book-pl-3 copulaEXIST-pl/copulaEXIST
    `Sardaana (possessor) has the books.'
Example #38:

    b.       Min tya-qa kinige-ler-im baal-lar/baar.
    I forest-dat book-pl-1sg copulaEXIST-pl/copulaEXIST
    `I have my books in the village.'
Example #39:

    c.       Min tya-qa uonna kuorak-ka kinige-ler-im baal-lar/*baar.
    I forest-dat and town-dat book-pl-1sg copulaEXIST-pl/copulaEXIST
    `I have my books in the village and in the town.'
Example #40:

    Min kinige-ler-im Sardaana-qa baal-lar/*baar.
    I book-pl-1sg Sardaana-dat copulaEXIST-pl/*copulaEXIST
    Sardaana's).'
Example #41:

    b.         Lookut en kinige- miexe baar dien bil-er
    Lookut you book-2sg me.dat copulaEXIST DIEN know-aor
    `Lookut knows that I have your book.'
Example #42:

    c.         Lookut en kinige-q-in miexe baar dien bil-er
    Lookut you book-2sg-acc me.dat copulaEXIST DIEN know-aor
    `Lookut knows that I have your book.'
Example #43:

    (58)     a.       Min Sargy-ga [üöreteecci kinige-tin] ularsy-byt-ym
    I Sargy-dat teacher book-3.acc lend-past-1sg
    `I lent out the teacher's book to Sargy.'
Example #44:

    (59)     Aisen aqa-tyn aqa-tyn aqa-tyn aqa-ta
    Aisen father-3.gen father-3.gen father-3.gen father-3
    `Aisen's father's father's father's father'
Example #45:

    (61)       Min/Miexe Xataska ferma-m baar.
    I/me.dat Xatas-dat farm-1sg copulaEXIST
    `The farm I own/*built/*like/*live next to/*etc. is in Xatas.'
Example #46:

    Kini ajaq-ar tiih-e bary-ta baar.
    He mouth-3.dat teeth-3 all-3 copulaEXIST
    `He has all his teeth.'
Example #47:

    (69)       a.         Min Keskil/Keskil-i ataq-yn tep-ti-m.
    I Keskil/Keskil-acc leg-3.acc kick-past-1sg
    'I kicked Keskil's leg/Keskil on the leg.'
Example #48:

    (72)     a.       Sardaana(-qa) ebee-te/tiih-e/massyyna-ta baar.
    Sardaana(-dat) grandmother-3/teeth-3/car-3 copulaEXIST
    'Sardaana has a grandmother/teeth/a car.'
Example #49:

    b.       Bu massyyna/#ebee/#tiis Sardaana kien-e.
    This car/#grandmother/#teeth Sardaana KIEN-3
    'This car/#This grandmother/#This tooth are Sardaana's.'
Example #50:

    b.         Djie inn-in kyraaskalaa-ty-m.
    house front-3.acc paint-past.1sg
    'I painted the front of the house.'
Example #51:

    (91)        Djie adjas tah-ynan aas-ty-m
    House totally outside-3.instrum pass-past-1sg
    `I passed very close to the house.'
Example #52:

    (92)        Kini ehigi tus-kut-unan/tuh-unan suruj-but-a.
    He you side-2pl-instrum/side-3.instrum write-past-3
    `He wrote about you.'
Example #53:

    (97)     Min ulaxan ferma-m
    I big farm-1sg
    `the big farm I own/*built/*like/*live next to/*burnt/*where I work, etc.'
Example #54:

    (99)     a.       En uhun eterbeh-i/ubaj-y/kylaman-y
    you long boot-2sg/brother-2sg/eyelash-2sg
    `you long boot(s)/your tall brother/your long eyelashes'
Example #55:

    b.       Ejiexe uhun eterbeh-i/#ubaj-y/#kylaman-y baar.
    You.dat long boot-2sg/brother-2sg/eyelash-2sg
    `You have long boot(s)/#a tall brother/#long eyelashes.'
Example #56:

    c.       En uhun ubaj-daax-xyn/kylaman-naax-xyn.
    You long brother-LAAX-2sg/eyelash-LAAX-2sg
    `You have a tall brother/long eyelashes.'
Example #57:

    uu-lar ­ xaar-dar
    water-pl ­ snow-pl
    L: *`lies'
Example #58:

    uu-laa ­ xaar-daa
    water-verb ­ snow-verb
    L: *`tell lies'
Example #59:

    uu-laax ­ xaar-daax xallaan
    water-adj ­ snow-adj weather
    L: *`false, unreliable weather'
Example #60:

    uu-laax ­ xaar-daax kihi
    water-adj ­ snow-adj person
    L: *`false, unreliable person'
Example #61:

    (121)         a.         Bili urukku balaqan-y kör-dü-m.
    that former house-acc see-past-1sg
    ii. `I saw that former house (ruin).'
Example #62:

    (123)        Oqo kel-le.
    Child come-past.3
    `A/The child/Children came.'
Example #63:

    (124)      a.          Min saharxaj sibekki ürgee-ti-m.
    I yellow flower- pick-past-1sg
    `I picked a yellow flower/flowers.'
Example #64:

    b.          Min saharxaj sibekki-ni ürgee-ti-m.
    I yellow flower-acc pick-past-1sg
    `I picked the yellow flower.'
Example #65:

    (1)        a.         Ookko tust-ar da saaxymattyy-r da.                                 V-V
    Ookko wrestle-aor and play.chess-aor and
    `Ookko wrestles and plays chess.'
Example #66:

    (3)        Michil suu-n-na, möq-ülün-ne, tahyrdja bar-da uonna oqo-nu yta-t-ta.
    cry-caus-past.3
    `Michil washed himself, was scolded, went outside and made a child cry.'
Example #67:

    (4)        Bu kihi eder, djon-umsax, ahyn-ygas uonna ös kiir-bex
    this person young, people-adj, feel.sorry-adj and word enter-adj
    `This person is young, sociable, compassionate and gullible.'
Example #68:

    (5)        Bu kihi saaxymatcyt da ikkis oskuola direktor-a da.
    This person chess.player and second school director-3 and
    `This person is a chess player and the director of school 2.'
Example #69:

    (11)       a.      Bihigi balyksyt buolabyt.
    We fisherman be(come)-aor-1pl
    `We will become fishermen (now we are learning the profession).'
Example #70:

    b.      Bihigi balyksyt-tar buol-a-byt.
    We fisherman be-aor-1pl
    `We are fishermen.'
Example #71:

    (14)       a.          En öjdööx-xün.
    You clever-2sgPRED
    `You are clever.'
Example #72:

    b.          En öjdööq-ün bihiexe biller.
    You clever-2sgPOSS we.dat is.known
    `That you are clever is known to us.'
Example #73:

    (15)       a.          En saaxymatcyk-kyn.
    You chess.player-2sgPRED
    `You are a chess player.'
Example #74:

    b.          En saaxymatcyt-yn bihiexe biller.
    You chess.player-2sgPOSS we.dat is.known
    `Your chess player is known to us (if you are a trainer).'
Example #75:

    (16)       En saaxymatcyt buol-ar-yn bihiexe biller.
    You chess.player be-aor-2sgPOSS we.dat is.known
    `That you are a chess player is known to us.'5
Example #76:

    (17)       a.         Ajaal bar-ba-ta.
    Ajaal go-neg-past.3
    `Ajaal did not go.'
Example #77:

    (18)       a.         Ookko belem-e / myndyr-a suox.
    Ookko ready-3 / wise-3 no
    `Ookko is not ready (yet) / wise (enough).'
Example #78:

    b.         Ookko belem / myndyr buol-ba-tax.
    Ookko ready / wise be-neg-subj
    `Ookko is not (at all) ready / wise.'
Example #79:

    (22)     a.       Sardaana djol-loo-x / küüs-tee-x
    Sardaana happiness-verb-adj / strength-verb-adj
    `Sardaana is happy / strong.'
Example #80:

    b.       Sardaana ijetin djol-loo-to / küüs-tee-te.
    Sardaana happiness-verb-past.3 / strength-verb-past.3
    `Sardaana made her mother happy / strong.'
Example #81:

    (23)     a.       Bihigi küüs-tee-x buol-ba-tax-pyt.
    We strength-verb-adj be-neg-subj-1pl
    `We are not strong.'
Example #82:

    b.       Bihigi küüh-e suox-put / *küüs-tee-q-e suox-put.
    We strength-3 no-1pl / *strength-verb-adj-3 no-1pl
    `We are not strong; we have no strength.'
Example #83:

    b.       As dep-delej buol-ba-tax.
    Food red-abundant be-neg-subj
    `Food is not very abundant.'
Example #84:

    (25)     As delej-e suox buol-ba-tax.
    Food abundant-3 no be-neg-subj
    `It is not the case that food is not abundant.'
Example #85:

    b.                Bu kyyl beder buol-ba-tax.
    This animal lynx be-neg-subj
    `This animal is not a lynx.'
Example #86:

    (28)            Ehigi bytaa-yt.
    you slow-2pl
    `You are slow.'
Example #87:

    (29)            Ehigi bytaan-a suox-xut.
    you slow-3 not-2pl
    `You are not slow.'
Example #88:

    (30)            Ehigi byp-bytaa-yt.
    you red-slow-2pl
    `You are very slow.'
Example #89:

    (31)            a.               Ehigi nahaa bytaa-yt.
    you very slow-2pl
    `You are very slow.'
Example #90:

    c.               Ehigi nahaa bytaan-a suox-xut.
    You very slow-3 not-2pl
    `You are not very slow.'
Example #91:

    (33)     a.       [DP-SUBJ Bu maqahyyn klien-nar-a] [NP-PRED oskuola oqo-lor-o].
    [this shop client-pl-3] [school child-pl-3]
    `This shop's clients are schoolchildren.'
Example #92:

    b.       [Bu maqahyyn klien-nar-a] [oskuola oqo-lor-o] buol-al-lar
    [this shop client-pl-3] [school child-pl-3] be-aor-pl
    `This shop's clients are schoolchildren (emphasized).'
Example #93:

    (34)     a.       Bu maqahyyn klien-nar-a eder-der.
    this shop client-pl-3 young-pl
    `This shop's clients are young.'
Example #94:

    b.       Bu maqahyyn klien-nar-a eder buol-al-lar
    this shop client-pl-3 young be-aor-pl
    `This shop's clients are generally/usually young.'
Example #95:

    (37)     a.       Bu kyyl uhun buol-ar.
    This animal tall be-aor
    `Species of this kind of animal are in general tall.'
Example #96:

    b.       Kesha uhun buol-ar.
    Kesha tall be-aor
    `Kesha is (generally) tall (=In general, for events/situations that
Example #97:

    c.       Kesha sarsyarda et sii-r buol-ar.
    Kesha morning meat eat-aor be-aor
    `Kesha usually eats meat in the morning.'
Example #98:

    d.       Kesha sarsyarda et sii-r.
    Kesha morning meat eat-aor
    `Kesha eats meat in the morning.'
Example #99:

    Bihigi kolxuos basty balyksyt-tar-a-byt.
    We kolkhoz best fisherman-pl-3-1pl
    `We are the best fishermen of the kolkhoz.'
Example #100:

    (42)            En aaq-a-qyn.
    You read-aor-2sg
    `You read/will read.'
Example #101:

    (45)       a.         En aaq-ar-y/*aaq-yaq-y bil-l-er
    you read-aorist-2sg/*read-fut-2sg know-pass-aorist
    `It is known that you read/*will read.'
Example #102:

    Min lotereja-qa süüj-büp-pün.
    I lottery-dat win-rem.past-1sg
    `It turns out I won in the lottery (comes as a surprise).'
Example #103:

    Min lotereja-qa süüj-büt-teex-pin.
    I lottery-dat win-rem.past-LAAX-1sg
    `By the way, there was an episode in the past when I won in the lottery.'
Example #104:

    Ölöksöj Aisen-y kör-dö.
    Ölöksöj Aisen-acc see-immed.past.3
    `Ölöksöj saw Aisen (not so long ago).'
Example #105:

    Ölöksöj Lenin-y kör-büt-e / *kör-dö18.
    Ölöksöj Lenin-acc see-rem.past-3 / see-immed.past.3
    `They say, Ölöksöj saw Lenin.'
Example #106:

    (59)     a.       As minnjigeh-e.             (Immediate Past Tense)
    food delicious-3
    `Food was delicious.'
Example #107:

    b.       As minnjiges e-t-e.     (Immediate Past Tense, with Aux)
    food delicious aux-immed.past-3
    `Food was delicious.'
Example #108:

    (61)     a.       As kemci buol-uoq-a.                     (future)
    Food scarce be-future-3
    `Food will be scarce.'
Example #109:

    b.       En xolku e-bik-kin.                      (past resultative)
    you calm aux-rem.past-2sg
    `It turns out you are calm.'
Example #110:

    c.       En sudurgu e-bit e-ti-.                  (pluperfect)
    you simple aux-rem.past aux-immed.past-2sg
    `You had been simple.'
Example #111:

    (70)      Bihigi beqehee Saaska-ttan suruk tut.
    We yesterday Saaska-abl letter receive
    `(All of a sudden) Yesterday we received a letter from Saaska.'
Example #112:

    (72)      Bihigi beqehee ystan (=ystan-ny-byt).
    We yesterday jump (=jump-immed.past-1pl)
    `Yesterday, suddenly, we jumped (once/repeatedly).'
Example #113:

    (74)     Min/en/kini/bihigi/ehigi/kiniler möq-ülün da möq-ülün.
    I/you/he/we/you/they scold-pass particle scold-pass
    `I/you/he/we/you/they were/are constantly scolded.'
Example #114:

    (78)            Oloppos aldjan da aldjan.
    Chair break DA break
    `The chair kept/keeps breaking.'
Example #115:

    Bihigi kolxuos basty balyksyt-tar-a buol-uox-put.
    We kolkhoz best fisherman-pl-3 be-fut-1pl
    `We will be the best fishermen of the kolkhoz.'
Example #116:

    Bihigi kolxuos basty balyksyt-tar-a e-ti-bit.
    We kolkhoz best fisherman-pl-3 aux-immed.past-1pl
    `We were the best fishermen of the kolkhoz.'
Example #117:

    (85)       En yraas-k-yn bil-e-bit.
    You clean-2sg-acc know-aor-1pl
    `We know that you are clean.'
Example #118:

    (86)       En byraas buol-ar-g-yn/??byraas-k-yn bil-e-bit.
    You doctor be-aor-2sg-acc/??doctor-2sg-acc know-aor-1pl
    `We know that you are a doctor.'
Example #119:

    (89)       En baa-a ülelii-r-i bil-l-er.
    You bank-dat work-aor-2sg know-pass-aor
    Present/future: `It is known that you work in the bank.'
Example #120:

    (90)         *En baa-a ülelii-r e-ti- bil-l-er.
    You bank-dat work-aor aux-immed.past-2sg know-pass-aor
    Past imperfect 2: `It is known that you used to work in the bank.'
Example #121:

    (91)         *En baa-a ülelee-ti- bil-l-er.
    You bank-dat work-immed.past-2sg know-pass-aor
    Immediate past: `It is known that you worked in the bank.'
Example #122:

    (92)         En baa-a ülelee-ti- dien ihit-ti-m.
    You bank-dat work-immed.past-2sg Comp hear-immed.past-1sg
    Immediate past: `I heard that you worked in the bank.'
Example #123:

    (95)     a.       Kini xohoonnjut.                              (matrix)
    he poet
    `He is a poet.'
Example #124:

    b.       Kini xohoonnjut dien bil-l-er.                (finite embedded)
    he poet Comp know-pass-aor
    `It is known that he is a poet.'
Example #125:

    c.       Kini xohoonnjut buol-ar-a bil-l-er.           (nonfinite embedded)
    he poet be-aor-3 know-pass-aor
    `It is known that he is a poet.'
Example #126:

    (96)       a.        Künnej Sargy-ga sirdjit.                               Noun
    Künnej Sargy-dat guide
    `Künnej is a guide to Sargy.'
Example #127:

    b.         Künnej Sargy-ga interiehinej.                          Adjective
    Künnej Sargy-dat interesting
    `Künnej is interesting to Sargy.'
Example #128:

    (97)       a.                 Sargy-ga sirdjit *(buol-ar) kyys
    Sargy-dat guide *(be-aor) girl
    `the girl who is a guide to Sargy'
Example #129:

    b.                 Sargy-ga interiehinej kyys
    Sargy-dat interesting girl
    `the girl who is interesting to Sargy'
Example #130:

    c.                 Sargy-ga kömölöh-ör kyys
    Sargy-dat help-aor girl
    `the girl who helps Sargy'
Example #131:

    (99)       Künnej kömölöh-ör kyyh-a
    Künnej help-aor girl-3
    `the girl whom Künnej helps'
Example #132:

    (106)     kihi sie-bit balyg-a                                                                                    (Sakha)
    person eat-past fish-3
    `the fish that the person ate'
Example #133:

    (108)    a.       Ookko oqonnjor-duun kel-le.
    Ookko old.man-comit come-past.3
    `Ookko came with an old man.'
Example #134:

    b.       *Ookko kel-bit oqonnjor-o
    Ookko come-past old.man-3
    `an old man with whom Ookko came'
Example #135:

    (109)    a.       Ookko oqonnjor-duun kel-is-te.
    Ookko old.man-comit come-comit-past.3
    `Ookko came with an old man.'
Example #136:

    b.       Ookko kel-si-bit oqonnjor-o
    Ookko come-comit-past old.man-3
    `an old man with whom Ookko came'
Example #137:

    (110)    a.       Uol uonna kyys kuorak-ka bar-dy-lar.
    boy and girl town-dat go-past-pl
    `The boy and the girl went to the town.'
Example #138:

    b.       *Uol uona (kini) kuorak-ka bar-byt kyys
    boy and (she) town-dat go-past girl
    `the girl that the boy and (she) went to the town'
Example #139:

    c.       kuorak-ka bar-byt uol uonna kyys
    town-dat go-past boy and girl
    `the girl and the boy who went to the town'
Example #140:

    (111)      a.        Saaska Baaska-taaqar aax-maax.
    Saaska Baaska-compar stupid
    `Saaska is stupider than Baaska.'
Example #141:

    b.         *Saaska (kini-teeqer) aax-maax uol-a
    Saaska he-compar stupid boy-3
    `the boy that Saaska is stupider (than him)'
Example #142:

    (123)    Ookko urukku balaqana
    Ookko former house-3
    c. `a house that used to be in Ookko's possession'
Example #143:

    (124)    a.       Bili urukku balaqan-y kör-dü-m.
    that former house-acc see-past-1sg
    b. `I saw that former house (ruin).'
Example #144:

    (127)        bulcut/saaxymatcyt buol-ba-tax kihi                                         N-negation
    hunter/chess.player be-neg-subj person
    `a person who is not a hunter/chess player'
Example #145:

    (130)        a.         *Bulcut2-a suox bulcut1 kihi
    *hunter-3 no hunter person
    *`a hunting1 person (with hunter-like qualities) without hunting              2
Example #146:

    (137)      a.          Kesha sarsyarda et sii-r.
    Kesha morning meat eat-aor
    `Kesha eats meat in the morning.'
Example #147:

    b.       Kesha sarsyarda et sii-r buol-ar.
    Kesha morning meat eat-aor be-aor
    `Kesha usually eats meat in the morning.'
Example #148:

    (138)    a.       Bu maqahyyn klien-nar-a eder-der.
    this shop client-pl-3 young-pl
    `This shop's clients are young.'
Example #149:

    b.       Bu maqahyyn klien-nar-a eder buol-al-lar
    this shop client-pl-3 young be-aor-pl
    `This shop's clients are generally/usually young.'
Example #150:

    b.       [Bu maqahyyn klien-nar-a] [oskuola oqo-lor-o] buol-al-lar
    [this shop client-pl-3] [school child-pl-3] be-aor-pl
    *`This shop's clients are generally/usually schoolchildren.'
Example #151:

    (140)    a.       Kini kyra-tyk/*kyra syys-ta                   A-Adv V / *A V
    he small-adv/*small be.mistaken-past.3
    `He was slightly mistaken.'
Example #152:

    c.       Bu xolobur kyra-tyk/*kyra syyha.             A-Adv A / *A A
    This example small-adv/*small wrong
    `This example is slightly wrong.'
Example #153:

    (144)      a.         Kini bytaan-nyk xaam-ar.
    He slow-adv walk-aor
    `He walks slowly.'
Example #154:

    b.         Kini bytaan baqajy-tyk xaam-ar.
    He slow very-adv walk-aor
    `He walks very slowly.'
Example #155:

    b.       Kini [[bytaan uonna naqyl] baqajytyk] saarar.
    He [[slow and calm] very-adv] speak-aor
    `He speaks very slowly and very calmly.'
Example #156:

    (149)    a.       Uhun-a bil-li-bet.
    Long-3 know-pass-neg.aor
    `Length is not known.'
Example #157:

    b.       Sargy symnaqah-yn/kytaanaq-yn/ücügej-in kil-ler-de.
    Sargy soft-3.acc/tough-3.acc/good-3.acc enter-caus-past.3
    `Sargy displayed softness/toughness/goodness.'
Example #158:

    (150)    Eterbes uhun-a bil-li-bet.
    Boot long-3 know-pass-neg.aor
    `The boot's length is not known.'
Example #159:

    (151)      a.        Xajyhardyy-r ücügej.
    Ski-aor good
    `Skiing (in general, done by anyone, including myself) is good.'
Example #160:

    b.         Xajyhardyyr-y söbülüü-bün.
    Ski-aor-acc like.aor-1sg
    `I like skiing (in general, done by anyone, including myself).'
Example #161:

    (152)      a.        Bytaan kuhaqan.
    Slow bad
    `It is bad when people/things are slow.'63
Example #162:

    b.         Bytaan-y kim da söbülee-bet.
    Slow-acc who particle like-neg.aor
    `Nobody likes when people/things are slow.'
Example #163:

    (153)      a.        Bytaan buol-ar kuhaqan.
    Slow be-aorist bad
    `It is bad when people are slow.'
Example #164:

    b.         Bytaan buol-ar-y kim da söbülee-bet.
    Slow be-aor-acc who particle like-neg.aor
    `Nobody likes when people are slow.'
Example #165:

    (154)      Tylbaascyt *(buol-ar) yaraxan.
    Translator *(be-aorist) difficult
    `It is difficult for anyone to be a traslator.'
Example #166:

    (1)      a.       Min oloppoh-u aldjat-ty-m.
    I chair-acc break-past-1sg
    `I broke the chair.'
Example #167:

    b.       Oloppos aldjan-na.
    Chair break-past.3
    `The chair broke.'
Example #168:

    (7)      a.       *Buh-ulun-na/ir-ilin-ne/süt-ülün-ne.
    boil-pass-past/melt-pass-past/disappear-pass-past
    `It was boiled/melted/disappeared.'
Example #169:

    b.       Ülele-n-ne/ystan-ylyn-na/süür-ülün-ne/sötüöle-n-ne.
    work-pass-past/jump-pass-past/run-pass-past/swim-pass-past
    `It was worked/jumped/run/coughed.'
Example #170:

    (8)      a.       *Oloppos ötüje-nen aldjan-na.
    chair hammer-instr break-past
    `The chair broke with a hammer.'
Example #171:

    b.       Kyys kuukula-nan oonnjoo-to.
    girl doll-instr play-past
    `The girl played with a doll.'
Example #172:

    (10)     a.      Micil xarcy ölör-öörü ülel-iir.
    Micil money earn-purp work-pres
    `Michil works in order to earn money.'
Example #173:

    b.       *Auditorija lieksije ist-eeri cuumpur-da.
    audience lecture listen-purp hush-past.3
    `The audience hushed in order to listen to the lecture.'
Example #174:

    (11)     a.      Erel sajyn ferma-qa ülele-s-te.
    Erel summer farm-dat work-comit-past.3
    the summer.'
Example #175:

    (13)         a.        Aisen Keskil-i ülele-t-te / ülele-t-ter-de.
    Aisen Keskil-acc work-caus-past.3 / work-caus-caus-past.3
    `Aisen made Keskil work.'
Example #176:

    b.        Aisen Keskil-i baj-yt-ta / *baj-yt-tar-da.
    A. K.-acc become.rich-caus-past.3 / *become.rich-caus-caus-past.3
    `Aisen made Keskil rich.'
Example #177:

    (14)     a.       Kesha Aise-a Keskil-i ülele-t-ter-de.
    Kesha Aisen-dat Keskil-acc work-caus-caus-past.3
    `Kesha made Aisen make Keskil work.'
Example #178:

    b.       Kesha Aise-a Keskil-i baj-yt-tar-da.
    Kesha Aisen-dat Keskil-acc become.rich-caus-caus-past.3
    `Kesha made Aisen make Keskil rich.'
Example #179:

    b.       Aisen Keskil-ge bu kinigeni tal-lar-da.
    Aisen Keskil-dat this book-acc choose-caus-past.3
    `Aisen made Keskil choose this book.'
Example #180:

    c.       Lena Aisen-ynan Keskil-ge bu kinigeni tal-lar-tar-da.
    L. A.-instrum K.-dat this book-acc choose-caus-caus-past.3
    `Lena made Aisen make Keskil choose this book.'
Example #181:

    b.       Aisen Keskil-ge miin-i soj-ut-tar-da.
    Aisen Keskil-dat soup-acc cool-caus-caus-past.3
    `Aisen made Keskil cool the soup.'
Example #182:

    c.       Lena Aisen-ynan Keskil-ge miin-i soj-ut-tar-tar-da.
    Lena A.-instrum K.-dat soup-acc cool-caus-caus-caus-past.3
    `Lena made Aisen make Keskil cool the soup.'
Example #183:

    (17)         Kesha Aisen-y baj-yp-pa-ta.
    Kesha Aisen-acc become.rich-caus-neg-past.3
    ii. *`Kesha made Aisen not become rich.'
Example #184:

    (18)     Kesha Aisen-y ülele-p-pe-te.
    Kesha Aisen-acc work-caus-neg-past.3
    ii. `Kesha makes Aisen not work.'
Example #185:

    (19)     *Kesha bytaannyk Aisen-y türgennik baj-yt-ta.
    Kesha slowly Aisen-acc quickly become.rich-caus-past.3
    `Kesha slowly made Aisen quickly become rich.'
Example #186:

    (20)     Kesha bytaannyk Aisen-y türgennik ülele-t-te.
    Kesha slowly Aisen-acc quickly work-caus-past.3
    `Kesha slowly made Aisen work quickly.'
Example #187:

    (21)       a.         Kesha Aisen-y/tohoqo-nu baqana-qa saaj-da.
    Kesha Aisen-acc/nail-acc wooden.pole-dat hit-past.3
    `Kesha hit Aisen/the nail against/into a wooden pole.'
Example #188:

    b.         Aisen/*tohoqo baqana-qa saalyn-na.
    Aisen/*nail wooden.pole-dat bump-past.3
    `Aisen/*the nail bumped into a wooden pole.'
Example #189:

    c.         Tohoqo baqana-qa saaj-ylyn-na.
    Nail wooden.pole-dat hit-pass-past.3
    `The nail was hit into a wooden pole.'
Example #190:

    (25)          a.         Yraaxtaaqy noruot-u batt-yyr.
    Czar people-acc oppress-aor
    `The czar oppresses the people.'
Example #191:

    (36)       a.      Lena Sardaana-ny surug-u aax-tar-da.
    Lena Sardaana-acc letter-acc read-caus-past.3
    `Lena made Sardaana read the letter.'
Example #192:

    b.      kinige-ni aax-tar-yy / kinige-ni aax-tar-aaccy
    book-acc read-caus-nom / book-acc read-caus-nom
    `making to read the book / maker to read the book'
Example #193:

    b.       En Sargy-ny yta-t-ty-.
    You Sargy-acc cry-caus-past-2sg
    `You made Sargy cry.'
Example #194:

    b.       Erel Sargy-ga/Sargy-ny/Sargy-nan taas tal-lar-da.
    Erel Sargy-dat/-acc/-instrum clothes choose-caus-past.3
    DAT/*ACC/*INSTRUM: `Erel let Sargy choose clothes.'
Example #195:

    (48)     a.       Lena Aisen-y söbül-üür/abaahy kör-ör.
    Lena Aisen-acc like-aor/devil see-aor
    `Lena likes/dislikes Aisen.'
Example #196:

    b.       *Sargy Lena-qa Aisen-y söbüle-t-er/abaahy kör-dör-ör.
    Sargy Lena-dat Aisen-acc like-caus-aor/devil see-caus-aor
    `Sargy makes Lena like/dislike Aisen.'
Example #197:

    (49)     a.       Micil ösöh-ör.
    Micil be.obstinate-aor
    `Micil is being obstinate.'
Example #198:

    b.       Micil iti-ni ösöh-ör.
    Micil this-acc oppose-aor
    `Micil opposes this.'
Example #199:

    c.       Sargy Micil-i ösöhün-ner-de.
    Sargy Micil-acc oppose-caus-past.3
    `Sargy made Micil oppose (her/something).'
Example #200:

    (50)      a.      Ookko kini-ni semelee-te.
    Ookko he-acc reproach-past.3
    `Ookkoi reproached him*i/j.'
Example #201:

    b.      Bajbal Ookko-qo kini-ni semele-t-te.
    Bajbal Ookko-dat he-acc reproach-caus-past.3
    `Bajbalk made Ookkoi reproach him*i/*k/j.'
Example #202:

    (51)      Ajaal Sargy-ga oton sie-t-te. Keskil emie onnuk gyn-na.
    Ajaal Sargy-dat berry eat-caus-past.3. Keskil too so do-past.3
    *b. `Keskil also ate berries.'
Example #203:

    b.       Aisen Keskil-ge bu kinigeni tal-lar-da.
    Aisen Keskil-dat this book-acc choose-caus-past.3
    `Aisen made Keskil choose this book.'
Example #204:

    c.       Lena Aisen-ynan Keskil-ge bu kinigeni tal-lar-tar-da.
    Lena A.-instrum K.-dat this book-acc choose-caus-caus-past.3
    `Lena made Aisen make Keskil choose this book.'
Example #205:

    (54)     a.       Lena Aana-qa kini-ni möx-tör-dö.
    Lena Aana-dat she-acc scold-caus-past.3
    `Lenaj made Aanak scold her*j/*k.'
Example #206:

    b.       Erel Lena-nan Aana-qa kini-ni möx-tör-tör-dö.
    Erel Lena-instrum Aana-dat she-acc scold-caus-caus-past.3
    `Ereli made Lenaj make Aanak scold heri/*j/*k.'
Example #207:

    Ookko emie onnuk gynna.
    L. A.-instrum K.-dat this book-acc choose-caus-caus-past.3 O. too so did
    b. `Ookko also made Keskil choose this book.'
Example #208:

    (56)     a.       Sardaana Erel-ge kinige-ni aax-tar-da.
    Sardaana Erel-dat book-acc read-caus-past.3
    `Sardaana made Erel read the book.'
Example #209:

    b.       Kinige Erel-ge aax-tar-ylyn-na.
    Book Erel-dat read-caus-pass-past.3
    `The book was made to be read by Erel.'
Example #210:

    c.       Erel-ge kinige-ni aax-tar-yy
    Erel-dat book-acc read-caus-nom
    `making Erel read the book'
Example #211:

    (57)     a.       Aisen Sardaana-nan Erel-ge kinige-ni aax-tar-tar-da.
    Aisen Sardaana-instrum Erel-dat book-acc read-caus-caus-past.3
    `Aisen made Sardaana make Erel read the book.'
Example #212:

    b.       *Kinige Sardaana-nan Erel-ge aax-tar-tar-ylyn-na.
    Book Sardaana-instrum Erel-dat read-caus-caus-pass-past.3
    `The book was made to be read by Erel by Sardaana.'
Example #213:

    c.       *Sardaana-nan Erel-ge kinige-ni aax-tar-tar-yy
    Sardaana-instrum Erel-dat book-acc read-caus-caus-nom
    `making Sardaana make Erel read the book'
Example #214:

    (58)       a.         Lena taah-yn ötüükte-n-ne.
    Lena clothes-acc iron-refl-past.3
    `Lena ironed her clothes (for her own benefit).'
Example #215:

    b.         Sargy Lena-qa taah-yn ötüükte-n-ner-de.
    Sargy Lena-dat clothes-acc iron-refl-caus-past.3
    `Sargy made Lena iron her clothes (for Lena's benefit).'
Example #216:

    (59)       a.        Uu orguj-da/toq-un-na.
    Water boil-past.3/spill-n-past.3
    `Water boiled/spilled.'
Example #217:

    b.         Lena uu-nu orgut-ta/tox-to.
    Lena water-acc boil-past.3/spill-past.3
    `Lena boiled/spilled water.'
Example #218:

    tox--tor-tor-do.
    spill-vcaus-vcaus-vcaus-past.3
    `Semen made Sargy make Lena boil/spill water.'
Example #219:

    (7)      a.       Min saharxaj sibekki ürgee-ti-m.
    I yellow flower- pick-past-1sg
    `I picked a yellow flower/flowers.'
Example #220:

    b.       Min saharxaj sibekki-ni ürgee-ti-m.
    I yellow flower-acc pick-past-1sg
    `I picked {a specific/the} yellow flower.'
Example #221:

    (10)       Aisen tarba-n-na / möq-ün-ne / tard-yn-na.
    Aisen scratch-refl-past.3 / scold-refl-past.3 / pull-refl-past.3
    `Aisen scratched/scolded/pulled himself.'
Example #222:

    a.         Suoppar/*Ardax/*Myyla massyyna-ny suuj-da.
    Driver/*rain/*soap car-acc wash-past.3
    `The driver[AGENT]/*The rain[CAUSE]/*The soap[INSTRUMENT] washed the car.'
Example #223:

    b.         Lena/Tyas/Oonnjuur oqo-nu araldjyt-ta.
    Lena/noise/toy child-acc distract-past.3
    `Lena[AGENT]/Noise[CAUSE]/A toy[INSTRUMENT] distracted the child.'
Example #224:

    (11)     a.       *Sardaana araldyt-yn-na/tapta-n-ar.
    Sardaana distract-refl-past.3/love-refl-aor
    `Sardaana distracted herself/loves herself.'
Example #225:

    (16)     a.       Sardaana Lena-ny uonna beje-ti-n/*kini-ni möx-tö.
    Sardaana Lena-acc and self-3-acc/she-acc scold-past
    `Sardaana scolded Lena and herself/*her.'
Example #226:

    (17)     a.       Yraaxtaaqy miigin/*beje-b-in cej-ge ynyr-da.
    tsar me.acc/*self-1sg-acc tea-dat invite-past.3
    `The tsar invited me/*myself for tea.'
Example #227:

    b.       Yraaxtaaqy Lena-ny uonna miigin/beje-b-in cej-ge ynyr-da.
    tsar Lena-acc and me.acc/self-1sg-acc tea-dat invite-past.3
    `The tsar invited Lena and myself for tea.'
Example #228:

    (18)     Yraaxtaaqy Lena-ny uonna miigin/*beje-b-in cej-ge ynyr-talaa-ta.
    tsar Lena-acc and me.acc/*self-1sg-acc tea-dat invite-distr-past.3
    `The tsar invited Lena and me/*myself for tea.'
Example #229:

    b.       Sardaanai BEJE-TINi/j tapt-yyr, min emie.
    Sardaana self-3.acc love-aor, I too
    `Sardaana loves herselfi/herj/himj, me too.'
Example #230:

    (21)     a.       Sardaana tarbaq-yn byh-yn-na / ilii-tin suu-n-na.
    Sardaana finger-3.acc cut-refl-past.3 / hand-3.acc wash-refl-past.3
    `Sardaana cut her finger/washed her hands.'
Example #231:

    b.       Sardaana miin asta-n-na / son-un abyraxta-n-na.
    Sardaana soup cook-refl-past.3 / coat-3.acc mend-refl-past.3
    `Sardaana cooked herself soup/mended her coat (for herself).'
Example #232:

    (22)     a.       Sardaana Aisen tarbaq-yn bys-ta.
    Sardaana Aisen finger-3.acc cut-past.3
    `Sardaana cut Aisen's finger.'
Example #233:

    b.       Sardaana Ookko aqa-tygar miin astaa-ta.
    Sardaana Ookko father-3.dat soup cook-past.3
    `Sardaana cooked soup for Ookko's father'
Example #234:

    (23)     Kündül ynaq-ar ot ürge-n-ne.
    Kündül cow-3.dat grass pick-refl-past.3
    `Kündül picked grass for his cow (for his own benefit).'
Example #235:

    (24)     Kündül ynaq-ar ot ürgee-te.
    Kündül cow-3.dat grass pick-past.3
    `Kündül picked grass for his cow.'
Example #236:

    (25)     Kesha Aisen-y/*Aise-a/*Aisen-ynan suu-n-nar-da.
    Kesha Aisen-acc/*Aisen-dat/*Aisen-instrum wash-refl-caus-past.3
    `Kesha made Aiseni wash himselfi.'
Example #237:

    (26)     Kesha Aisen-y/Aise-a/Aisen-ynan ilii-tin suu-n-nar-da.
    past.3
    `Kesha made Aisen wash his hands.'
Example #238:

    (27)     Kesha Aisen-y/Aise-a/Aisen-ynan miin asta-n-nar-da.
    Kesha Aisen-acc/*Aisen-dat/*Aisen-instrum soup cook-refl-caus-past.3
    `Kesha made Aisen cook soup for himself.'
Example #239:

    a. *Kündül at-ygar ot ürge-n-ne.
    Kündül horse-3.dat grass pick-refl-past.3
    *`Kündül picked grass for his horse (for his own benefit).'
Example #240:

    (29)     Keskil bylaan-y/*ataq-yn xaartyska-qa tüher-in-ne.
    Keskil plan-acc/*leg-3.acc picture-dat make.fall-refl-past.3
    `Keskil took a picture of the plan/*his leg for himself.'
Example #241:

    (30)     Ilii-ni suu-n-uu/*miin-i asta-n-yy doruobuja-qa tuhalaax.
    Hand-acc wash-refl-nom/*soup-acc cook-refl-nom health-dat beneficial
    health.'
Example #242:

    (31)     a.       Sardaana sirej-in suu-n-utalaa-ta/*suuj-tala-n-na.
    Sardaana face-3.acc wash-refl-freq-past.3/*wash-freq-refl-past.3
    `Sardaana washed her face several times.'
Example #243:

    b.       Sardaana caaky-tyn suuj-tala-n-na/*suu-n-utalaa-ta.
    Sardaana cup-3.acc wash-freq-refl-past.3/*wash-refl-freq-past.3
    `Sardaana washed her cup several times.'
Example #244:

    (32)     a.       Sardaana Michil-ge ilii-tin suu-n-nar-da.
    Sardaana Michil-dat hand-3.acc wash-refl-caus-past.3
    `Sardaana made Michil wash his/her hands.'
Example #245:

    b.       Sardaana Michil-ge son tig-in-ner-de.
    Sardaana Michil-dat coat sew-refl-caus-past.3
    `Sardaana made Michil sew a coat for his own (Michil's) benefit.'
Example #246:

    c.        Sardaana Michil-ge son tik-ter-in-ne.
    Sardaana Michil-dat coat sew-caus-refl-past.3
    benefit.'
Example #247:

    (33)     a.       Sonun-nar aaq-ylyn-ny-lar.
    news-pl read-pass-past-pl
    `The news was read.'
Example #248:

    b.         Sonun-nar-y aaq-ylyn-na.
    news-pl-acc read-pass-past.3
    `The news were read.'
Example #249:

    b.         Tünnük-ter-i    sorujan     taah-ynan        aldjat-yll-yaq-a.
    Window-pl-acc on.purpose stone-instrum break-pass-fut-3
    `Windows will be broken on purpose with stones.'
Example #250:

    b.         Oloppostoru %aldjat-ytala-n-na/*aldjat-ylyn-ytalaa-ta.
    chair-pl-acc break-distr-pass-past.3/*break-pass-distr-past.3
    `Chairs were broken one after another.'
Example #251:

    (37)     a.       Radio aldjan-an xaal-la
    Radio break-ger remain-past.3
    `The radio broke completely'
Example #252:

    b.       Kuoska balyg-y sie-n kebis-te
    Cat fish-acc eat-ger throw-past.3
    `The cat completely finished the fish (ate all of the fish)'
Example #253:

    c.       Kinige-ni/*Kinige tahaar-an kebih-ilin-ne.
    book-acc/*book publish-ger perf.auxTRANS-pass-past.3
    `The book got published/ended up being published.'
Example #254:

    (40)     a.       Min biir kinige-ni aax-ty-m.
    I one book-acc read-past-1sg
    `I read a (specific/*non-specific) book.'
Example #255:

    b.       Biir kinige-ni aaq-ylyn-na.
    One book-acc read-pass-past.3
    `A (specific/*non-specific) book was read.'
Example #256:

    c.       Biir kinige aaq-ylyn-na.
    One book read-pass-past.3
    `A (specific/non-specific) book was read.'
Example #257:

    (50)     Misha uonna Masha beje beje-ler-in bieste xot-tu-lar.
    Misha and Masha self self-pl-3.acc five.times defeat-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha each defeated the other five times.'
Example #258:

    (51)     Misha uonna Masha beje beje-ler-in bieste kuus-tu-lar.
    Misha and Masha self self-pl-3.acc five.times hug-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha hugged each other five times.'
Example #259:

    (52)     a.       Misha uonna Masha bieste annjyala-s-ty-lar.
    Misha and Masha five.times push-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha pushed each other five times.'
Example #260:

    b.         Misha uonna Masha bieste araldjyt-ys-ty-lar.
    Misha and Masha five.times distract-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha distracted each other five times.'
Example #261:

    (53)      Misha uonna Masha bieste xot-us-tu-lar.
    Misha and Masha five.times defeat-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha each defeated the other five times.'
Example #262:

    (54)      Misha uonna Masha beje beje-ler-in bieste xot-us-tu-lar.
    Misha and Masha self self-pl-3.acc five.times defeat-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha each defeated the other five times.'
Example #263:

    (55)      Misha uonna Masha töröppüt-ter-in (*beje beje-lerin) bieste xot-us-tu-lar.
    M. and M. parent-pl-3.acc (*self self-pl-3.acc) five.times defeat-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha each defeated the other's parents five times.'
Example #264:

    (56)       a.        ?*Misha uonna Masha beje beje-ler-in kör-üs-tü-ler.
    Misha and Masha self self-pl-3.acc see-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha saw each other/met.'
Example #265:

    b.        *Misha uonna Masha beje beje-ler-in sylla-s-ty-lar.
    Misha and Masha self self-pl-3.acc kiss-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha kissed each other.'
Example #266:

    b.        Misha Masha-lyyn/Masha-ny kytta kör-üs-te/sylla-s-ta/oxs-us-ta.
    past.3
    `Misha met/kissed/fought with Masha.'
Example #267:

    b.        Misha annjyala-s-ta/üöq-üs-te/sylla-s-ta/ejele-s-te/oxs-us-ta.
    make.peace-rec-past.3/hit-rec-past.3
    peace/fought.'
Example #268:

    alaadjy asta-h-yn-nar-da.
    pancake cook-s-n-caus-past
    `I made Misha and Masha make pancakes for each other.'
Example #269:

    (60)       Misha uonna Masha töröppüt-ter-iger djie-ler-i tut-us-tu-lar.
    Misha and Masha parent-pl-3.dat house-pl-acc build-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha each built a house for the other's parents.'
Example #270:

    (61)        a.        Misha kel-le.
    Misha come-past.3
    `Misha came.'
Example #271:

    (62)        a.        Ookko oqonnjor-duun kel-le.
    Ookko old.man-comit come-past.3
    `Ookko came with an old man.'
Example #272:

    b.        *Ookko kel-bit oqonnjor-o
    Ookko come-past old.man-3
    `an old man with whom Ookko came'
Example #273:

    (63)     a.       Ookko oqonnjor-duun kel-is-te.
    Ookko old.man-comit come-comit-past.3
    `Ookko came with an old man.'
Example #274:

    b.       Ookko kel-si-bit oqonnjor-o
    Ookko come-comit-past old.man-3
    `an old man with whom Ookko came'
Example #275:

    (64)     a.       Misha Masha-lyyn üöq-üs-te.
    Misha Masha-comit curse-rec-past.3
    `Misha used abusive language with Masha (Misha and Masha used
Example #276:

    (65)     Misha uonna Masha töröppüt-ter-in bieste xot-us-tu-lar.
    M. and M. parent-pl-3.acc five.times defeat-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha each defeated the other's parents five times.'
Example #277:

    (66)     Misha uonna Masha töröppüt-ter-iger djie-ler-i tut-us-tu-lar.
    Misha and Masha parent-pl-3.dat house-pl-acc build-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha each built a house for the other's parents.'
Example #278:

    abaahy kör-s-öl-lör.
    hate-rec-aor-pl
    `Misha and Masha each analyzed/distracted/hate the other's parents.'
Example #279:

    (70)    a.         Misha Masha-lyyn aaq-ys-ta.
    Misha Masha-comit read-rec-past.3
    `Misha reckoned with Masha.'
Example #280:

    b.         Misha uonna Masha kinige-ler-in aaq-ys-ty-lar.
    Misha and Masha book-pl-3.acc read-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha read each other's books.'
Example #281:

    (71)    a.         Misha Masha-lyyn bil-s-er.
    Misha Masha-comit know-rec-aor
    `Misha is acquainted with Masha.'
Example #282:

    b.        *Misha uonna Masha kinige-ler-in bil-s-el-ler.
    Misha and Masha book-pl-3.acc know-rec-aor-pl
    `Misha and Masha know each other's books.'
Example #283:

    (72)      a.        Misha Masha-lyyn kör-üs-te.
    Misha Masha-comit see-rec-past.3
    *`Misha and Masha looked after each other.'
Example #284:

    b.        Misha uonna Masha oqo-lor-un kör-üs-tü-ler.
    Misha and Masha child-pl-3.acc see-rec-past-pl
    *`Misha and Masha met with each other's children.'
Example #285:

    (74)     Michil ytaa-ta / djie tut-ar.                         (non-comitative)
    Michil cry-past.3 / house build-pres
    `Michil cried / is building a house.'
Example #286:

    (75)     Michil (Lena-lyyn) yta-s-ta / djie tut-uh-ar.         (comitative)
    Michil (Lena-comit) cry-s-past.3 / house build-s-pres
    Lena).'
Example #287:

    (77)     Min oqolor-u yta-h-yn-nar-dy-m.
    I childrenacc cry-s-n-caus-past-1sg
    ii) `I made the children cry together with someone else.'        (adjacent)
Example #288:

    (78)     Misha Masha-ny sene-h-er.
    Misha Masha-acc despise-s-aor
    `Misha despises Masha (taking after someone else who is the main
Example #289:

    (79)     Misha Masha-lyyn annjyala-s-ta.
    Misha Masha-comit push-s-past.3
    *`Misha pushed someone together with Masha (helped Masha push
Example #290:

    (80)     Misha Masha-lyyn Lusha-ny annjyala-s-ta.         (adjacent comitative)
    Misha Masha-comit Lusha-acc push-s-past.3
    `Misha pushed Lusha together with Masha (helped Masha push Lusha).'
Example #291:

    (81)     Misha uonna Masha djie tut-us-tu-lar.
    Misha and Masha house build-s-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha helped someone else build a house/Misha and Masha
Example #292:

    (82)     Kesha Lusha-ny yta-t-ta.
    Kesha Lusha-acc cry-caus-past.3
    `Kesha made Lusha cry.'
Example #293:

    (83)     a.       Aisen Sardaana-qa Lena-ny semele-t-te.
    Aisen Sardaana-dat Lena-acc reprimand-caus-past.3
    `Aisen made/let Sardaana reprimand Lena.'
Example #294:

    b.         Aisen Sardaana-ny Lena-ny semele-t-te.
    Aisen Sardaana-acc Lena-acc reprimand-caus-past.3
    `Aisen made/*let Sardaana reprimand Lena.'
Example #295:

    c.         Aisen Sardaana-nan Lena-ny semele-t-te.
    Aisen Sardaana-instrum Lena-acc reprimand-caus-past.3
    `Aisen made/*let Sardaana reprimand Lena.'
Example #296:

    (84)          Keskil Aisen-ynan Sardaana-qa Lena-ny semele-t-ter-de.
    Keskil Aisen-instrum Sardaana-dat Lena-acc reprimand-caus-caus-past.3
    `Keskil made Aisen make Sardaana reprimand Lena.'
Example #297:

    (85)     Keskil Aise-a/Aisen-ynan/Aisen-y uu orgut-tar-da.
    Keskil Aisen-dat/Aisen-instrum/Aisen-acc water boil-caus-past.3
    `Keskil made Aisen boil water.'
Example #298:

    (86)     a.       Keskil at-y xaam-tar-da.
    Keskil horse-acc walk-caus-past.3
    `Keskil made the horse walk.'
Example #299:

    b.       At/At-y xaam-tar-ylyn-na.
    Horse/horse-acc walk-caus-pass-past.3
    `The horse was made to walk.'
Example #300:

    (87)     *Aisen/*Aisen-y uu orgut-tar-ylyn-na.
    Aisen/Aisen-acc water boil-caus-pass-past.3
    (intended: `Aisen was made to boil water.')
Example #301:

    (88)     Misha Masha-ny Lusha-ny möx-tör-dö.
    Misha Masha-acc Lusha-acc scold-caus-past.3
    `Misha made Masha scold Lusha.'
Example #302:

    (90)      a.              Sardaana Erel-inen kinige-ni aax-tar-da.
    Sardaana Erel-instrum book-acc read-caus-past.3
    `Sardaana made Erel read the book.'
Example #303:

    b.              *Kinige Erel-inen aax-tar-ylyn-na.
    Book Erel-instrum read-caus-pass-past.3
    `The book was made to be read by Erel.'
Example #304:

    c.              *Erel-inen kinige-ni aax-tar-yy
    Erel-instrum book-acc read-caus-nom
    `making Erel read the book'
Example #305:

    (92)      Misha Masha-qa xoh-u xomuj-tar-da.
    Misha Masha-dat room-acc clean.up-caus-past.3
    `Misha made/let Masha clean up the room.'
Example #306:

    (96)     Misha Masha-ny xoh-u xomuj-tar-da.
    Misha Masha-acc room-acc clean.up-caus-past.3
    `Misha made/*let Masha clean up the room.'
Example #307:

    (98)     a.         Min Keskil ataq-yn tep-ti-m.
    I Keskil leg-3.acc kick-past-1sg
    'I kicked Keskil's leg.'
Example #308:

    b.         Min Keskil-i ataq-yn tep-ti-m.
    I Keskil-acc leg-3.acc kick-past-1sg
    'I kicked Keskil on the leg.'
Example #309:

    (101)      Min ehigi/ehigi-ni bügün kyaj-yax-xyt dien erem-mit-im.
    I you/you-acc today win-fut-2pl COMP hope-past-1sg
    'I hoped you would win today.'
Example #310:

    (102)      Min ehigi/ehigi-ni bügün kyaj-byk-kyt-yn ihit-ti-m.
    I you/you-acc today win-past-2pl-acc hear-past-1sg
    `I heard that you won today.'
Example #311:

    (103)      Min ehigi-ni/*ehigi bügün kyaj-yax-tar-a dien erem-mit-im.
    I you-acc/*you today win-fut-pl-3 COMP hope-past-1sg
    'I hoped you would win today.'
Example #312:

    (107)    Sardaana {*Aisen} beqehee [CP bügün {Aisen} kel-er dien] ihit-te.
    past.3
    `Sardaana heard yesterday that Aisen is coming today.'
Example #313:

    (108)    Sardaana Aisen-y [CP kini bügün kel-er dien] ihit-te.
    Sardaana Aisen-acc [CP he today come-aor COMP] hear-past.3
    `Sardaana heard that Aisen is coming today.'
Example #314:

    (109)    Min ejiigin [CP {pro/en} kinige- bob-ullu-but dien] ihit-ti-m.
    I you.acc [CP {pro/you} book-2sg forbid-pass-past COMP] hear-past-1sg
    `I heard that your book was forbidden.'
Example #315:

    (110)    a.       Min kim daqany kyaj-ba-ta dien ihit-ti-m.
    I who particle win-neg-past.3 hear-past-1sg
    'I heard that nobody won.'
Example #316:

    b.       *Min kim daqany kyaj-da dien isti-be-ti-m.
    I who particle win-past.3 hear-past-neg-1sg
    'I heard that nobody won.'
Example #317:

    (111)    a.       Min kim-i daqany kyaj-da dien isti-be-ti-m.
    I who-acc particle win-past.3 hear-past-neg-1sg
    'I heard that nobody won.'
Example #318:

    b.       *Min kim-i daqany kyaj-ba-ta dien ihit-ti-m.
    I who-acc particle win-neg-past.3 hear-past-1sg
    'I heard that nobody won.'
Example #319:

    c.       Kini ehigi-ni kyajtar-dy-lar dien isti-bit.
    He you-acc become.defeated-past-pl COMP hear-past
    'He heard that you lost.'
Example #320:

    (113)      a.         Kini taara/taara-ny baar dien iteqej-er.
    He god/god-acc exist.copula DIEN believe-aor
    `He believes God exists.'
Example #321:

    b.         Kini taara/*taara-ny baar dien iteqel-e küühür-de.
    He god/god-acc exist.copula DIEN belief strengthen-past.3
    `His belief that God exists strengthened.'
Example #322:

    b.          Keskil [Aisen/Aisen-y kel-be-t dien] xomoj-do.
    Keskil [Aisen/Aisen-acc come-neg-aor DIEN] become.sad-past.3
    'Keskil became sad that Aisen is not coming.'
Example #323:

    (2)        a.          *Sargy Keskil-i [Aisen kel-be-t dien] sonun-tan xomot-to.
    S. Keskil-acc [Aisen come-neg-aor DIEN] news-abl make.sad-past.3
    'Sargy made Keskil sad by (telling him) the news that Aisen is not coming.'
Example #324:

    b.          Keskil [Aisen/Aisen-y kel-be-t dien] sonun-tan xomoj-do.
    Keskil [Aisen/Aisen-acc come-neg-aor DIEN] become.sad-past.3
    'Keskil became sad that Aisen is not coming.'
Example #325:

    (3)        [Aisen kel-be-t dien] sonun Keskil-i xomot-to.
    [Aisen come-neg-aor DIEN] news Keskil-acc make.sad-past.3
    'The news that Aisen is not coming made Keskil sad.'
Example #326:

    (4)        *[Aisen kel-be-t dien] Keskil-i xomot-to.
    [Aisen come-neg-aor DIEN] Keskil-acc make.sad-past.3
    'The Aisen is not coming made Keskil sad.'
Example #327:

    Keskil [CP Aisen/Aisen-y kel-be-t dien] bil-er.
    Keskil [Aisen/Aisen-acc come-neg-aor DIEN] know-aor
    a. CP-IP-complement: `Keskil knows that Aisen is not coming.'
Example #328:

    Keskil [KP Aisen/Aisen-y kel-be-t-in] bil-er.
    Keskil [Aisen/Aisen-acc come-neg-aor-3.acc] know-aor
    b. KP-IP-complement: `Keskil knows that Aisen is not coming.'
Example #329:

    Keskil Aisen-y bil-er.
    Keskil Aisen-acc know-aor
    c. KP-DP-complement: `Keskil knows Aisen.'
Example #330:

    (116)    a.       Sargy Keskil-i [CP Aisen/*Aisen-y kel-ie dien] erenner-de.
    S. K.-acc [CP Aisen/*Aisen-acc come-fut DIEN] promise-past.3
    'Sargy promised to Keskil that Aisen will come.'
Example #331:

    b.       Sargy Keskil-ge [CP Aisen/Aisen-y kel-ie dien] erenner-de.
    S. K.-dat [CP Aisen/A.-acc come-fut DIEN] promise-past.3
    'Sargy promised to Keskil that Aisen will come.'
Example #332:

    (117)    a.       Sargy Keskil-i [KP Aisen/*Aisen-y kel-er-in] erenner-de.
    S. K.-acc [KP Aisen/*A.-acc come-aor-3.acc] promise-past.3
    'Sargy promised to Keskil that Aisen will come.'
Example #333:

    b.       Sargy Keskil-ge [KP Aisen/Aisen-y kel-er-in] erenner-de.
    Sargy K.-dat [KP Aisen/A.-acc come-aor-3.acc] promise-past.3
    'Sargy promised to Keskil that Aisen will come.'
Example #334:

    (118)    Masha [Misha/Misha-ny kel-ie dien] djie-ni xomuj-da.
    Masha [Misha/Misha-acc come-fut DIEN] house-acc tidy-past.3
    'Masha tidied up the house (thinking) that Misha would come.'
Example #335:

    (119)    Masha Kesha-qa [Misha/Misha-ny aaq-ya dien] kinige-ni bier-de.
    Masha Kesha-dat [Misha/Misha-acc read-fut DIEN] book-acc give-past.3
    'Masha gave Kesha the book so that Misha would read it.'
Example #336:

    (120)    a.       Kesha Masha-ny [Misha/Misha-ny yaldj-ya dien] tönnör-dö.
    K. M.-acc [Misha/M.-acc fall.sick-fut DIEN] make.return-past.3
    'Kesha made Masha return (for fear) that Misha would fall sick.'
Example #337:

    b.       Masha [Misha/Misha-ny yaldj-ya dien] tönün-ne.
    Masha [Misha/Misha-acc fall.sick-fut DIEN] return-past.3
    'Masha returned (for fear) that Misha would fall sick.'
Example #338:

    c.       Masha [Misha/Misha-ny kör-üö dien] türgennik xaam-ta.
    Masha [Misha/Misha-acc see-fut DIEN] quickly walk-past.3
    'Masha walked fast so that Misha wouldn't see.'
Example #339:

    Masha [CP en yaldj-ya- dien] tönün-ne.
    Masha [CP you fall.sick-fut-2sg DIEN] return-past.3
    'I/Masha returned (for fear) that you would fall sick.'
Example #340:

    (124)    a.      Kesha meecig-i byrax-ta/byraq-an kebis-te.
    Kesha ball-acc throw-past.3/throw-ger perf.aux-past.3
    `Kesha threw the ball.'
Example #341:

    b.       Meecig-i byraq-yy/*byraq-an kebih-ii
    Ball-acc throw-nom/*throw-ger perf.aux-nom
    `throwing the ball/*having thrown the ball'
Example #342:

    (6)      a.       Ergis at-y yyyr-daa-ta.                        (locatum)
    Ergis horse-acc saddle-verb-past
    `Ergis saddled the horse.'
Example #343:

    b.       *Ergis kinige-ni dolbuur-daa-ta.               (*location)
    Ergis book-acc shelf-verb-past
    `Ergis shelved the book.'
Example #344:

    (7)      a.       Ergis ak-ka yyyr-y/yyyr ketert-te.
    Ergis horse-dat saddle-acc/saddle put-past.3
    `Ergis put the/a saddle on the horse.'
Example #345:

    b.       Ergis kinige-ni dolbuur-ga/*dolbuur uur-da.
    Ergis book-acc shelf-dat/*shelf put-past.3
    `Ergis put the book on the shelf.'
Example #346:

    (9)     a. *Ergis kinige-ni dolbuur-daa-ta
    Ergis book-acc shelf-verb-past.3
    *`Ergis shelved the book on.'
Example #347:

    b. Ergis kinige-ni dolbuur-ga uur-da
    Ergis book-acc shelf-dat put-past.3
    `Ergis put the book on the shelf.'
Example #348:

    (10)     a.       Misha kuorat-taa-ta.
    Misha town-LAA-past.3
    `Misha went to the town.'
Example #349:

    b.       Misha kuorak-ka bar-da.
    Misha town-dat go-past.3
    `Misha went to the town.'
Example #350:

    (13)     Ergis dolbuur-u kinige-lee-te.
    Ergis shelf-acc book-LAA-past.3
    `Ergis put a book/books on the shelf.'
Example #351:

    (14)     a.       #Kuorat-taa-ta.
    Town-verb-past.3
    #`It towned.'
Example #352:

    b.       Xaar-daa-ta.
    Snow-verb-past.3
    `It snowed.'
Example #353:

    (15)      Kesha kuorat-taa-ta.
    Kesha town-verb-past.3
    `Kesha went to the/a town.'
Example #354:

    (16)      Kesha Misha-qa kinige-ni belex-tee-te.
    Kesha Misha-dat book-acc gift-verb-past.3
    'Kesha presented Misha with a book.'
Example #355:

    (21)      a.       En sommun tuox-taa-ty-?
    You my.coat-acc what-LAA-past-2sg
    `What did you do with my coat?'
Example #356:

    b.       Mende xanna-laa-ta?
    Mende where-LAA-past.3
    `Where did Mende go?'
Example #357:

    c.       Üleqin töhö-löö-tü-?
    Your.work-acc how.much-LAA-past-2sg
    `How much of your work have you finished?'
Example #358:

    c.       Misha telgehe-ni xaar-daa-ta.
    Misha courtyard-acc snow-verb-past.3
    `Misha filled/layered the courtyard with snow.'
Example #359:

    (23)      Aqa oqo-nu kymnjyy-laa-ta.
    Father child-acc whip-verb-past.3
    `Father whipped the child' (use N as instrument)
Example #360:

    (24)      Aqa oqo-lor-u uhun kymnjyy-lar-daa-ta.
    Father child-pl-acc long whip-pl-verb-past.3
    *`Father whipped the children with long whips' (use N as instrument)
Example #361:

    (26)      a.        Sargy Mende-ni timir xarcy-laa-ta.
    Sargy Mende-acc iron money-verb-past.3
    `Sargy gave Mende coins.'
Example #362:

    b.        Sargy oqo-lor-u kyhyl, saharxaj, küöx sharik-tar-daa-ta.
    Sargy child-pl-acc red, yellow, blue/green balloon-pl-verb-past.3
    `Sargy gave the children red, yellow, blue/green balloons.'
Example #363:

    (27)      a.        Mende uulussa-ny (*kirdeex) xaar-daa-ta.
    Mende street-acc (*dirty) snow-verb-past.3
    'Mende removed (*dirty) snow from the street.'
Example #364:

    b.        Mende balyk-tar-y xatyryk-taa-ta/*xatyryk-tar-daa-ta.
    Mende fish-pl-acc scale-verb-past.3/*scale-pl-verb-past.3
    'Mende scaled the fish.'
Example #365:

    c.        Mende kirdeex xaq-y xax-taa-ta
    Mende dirty skin-acc skin-verb-past.3
    `Mende removed the dirty skin.'
Example #366:

    (29)      a.        Sardaana Misha-ny oqo-loo-to.
    Sardaana Misha-acc child-verb-past.3
    `Sardaana babysitted Misha.'
Example #367:

    b.        *Sardaana menik kulun-cuk-taa-ta.
    Sardaana naughty foal-dimin-verb-past.3
    Intended meaning: `Sardaana looked after naughty foals.'
Example #368:

    c.        *Sardaana kuluncuk-tar-daa-ta.
    Sardaana foal-pl-verb-past.3
    Intended meaning: `Sardaana looked after several foals.'
Example #369:

    (30)      Ookko omuk tabaq-yn tabax-taa-ta.
    Ookko foreign tobacco-3.acc tobacco-verb-past.3
    `Ookko smoked imported tobacco.'
Example #370:

    (31)      a.        Keskil (*menik) kuluncuk-taa-ta.
    Keskil naughty foal-verb-past.3
    `Keskil jumped around like a (*naughty) foal.'
Example #371:

    (32)       Mende soquruu dojdu-laa-ta.
    Mende southern country-verb-past.3
    `Mende went to a southern country.'
Example #372:

    (33)       a.         Kuurussa ulaxan symyyt-y symyyt-taa-ta.
    Hen big egg-acc egg-verb-past.3
    `The hen laid a large egg.'
Example #373:

    b.         Kuurussa kyhyl kömüs symyyt-taa-ta.
    Hen red gold egg-verb-past.3
    `The hen laid a golden egg/eggs.'
Example #374:

    c.         *Kuurussa symyyt-tar-daa-ta.
    Hen egg-pl-verb-past.3
    Intended meaning: `The hen laid several golden eggs.'
Example #375:

    a.         Bie kulun-naa-ta.
    Mare foal-verb-past.3
    `The mare gave birth to a deficient foal.'
Example #376:

    (34)      a.      Mende (*kyryympa-ny) kyryympa-laa-ta.
    Mende (*violin-acc) violin-verb-past.3
    `Mende played a violin.'
Example #377:

    b.      Mende (*saa) kyryympa-laa-ta.
    Mende (*new) violin-verb-past.3
    `Mende played a (*new) violin.'
Example #378:

    c.      *Mende kyryympa-lar-daa-ta.
    Mende violin-pl-verb-past.3
    Intended meaning: `Mende played several violins.'
Example #379:

    (35)      a.      (*Xaar/*Xaar-y) Xaar-daa-ta.
    (*snow/*snow-acc) snow-verb-past.3
    `It(/*snow) snowed (*a snow).'
Example #380:

    a.      Kesha Misha-ny xarcy-laa-ta/djie-lee-te.
    Kesha Misha-acc money-verb-past.3/house-verb-past.3
    `Kesha provided Misha with money/housing.'
Example #381:

    b.      Kesha beje-tin xarcy-laa-ta/djie-lee-te.
    Kesha self-3.acc money-verb-past.3/house-verb-past.3
    `Kesha provided himself with money/housing.'
Example #382:

    c.      Kesha xarcy-la-n-na/djie-le-n-ne.
    Kesha money-verb-refl-past.3/house-verb-refl-past.3
    *`Kesha provided himself with money/housing.'
Example #383:

    a.      Kesha Misha-ny öj-döö-tö/kymnjyy-laa-ta.
    Misha Misha-acc intelligence-verb-past.3/whip-verb-past.3
    `Kesha understood/whipped Misha.'
Example #384:

    b.      Kesha beje-tin öj-döö-tö/kymnjyy-laa-ta.
    Misha self-3.acc intelligence-verb-past.3/whip-verb-past.3
    `Kesha understood/whipped himself.'
Example #385:

    c.      Kesha öj-dö-n-nö/kymnjyy-la-n-na.
    Misha intelligence-verb-refl-past.3/whip-verb-refl-past.3
    *`Kesha understood/whipped himself.'
Example #386:

    a.     Kesha Mishany byrdax-taa-ta.
    Kesha Misha-acc mosquito-verb-past.3
    'Kesha killed mosquitoes around/on Misha'
Example #387:

    b.       Kesha beje-tin byrdax-taa-ta.
    Kesha self-3.acc mosquito-verb-past.3
    `Kesha killed mosquitoes around/on himself.'
Example #388:

    a.      Kesha Misha-ny oqo-loo-to.
    Kesha Misha-acc child-verb-past.3
    'Kesha nursed (babysitted, pampered) Misha.'
Example #389:

    b.      Kesha beje-tin oqo-loo-to.
    Kesha self-3.acc child-verb-past.3
    'Kesha pampered himself.'
Example #390:

    c.      Kesha oqo-lo-n-no.
    Kesha child-verb-refl-past.3
    *'Kesha pampered himself.'
Example #391:

    (40)    a.       Misha (beje-tiger) alaadjy-la-n-na/miin-ne-n-ne.
    Misha (self-3.dat) pancake-verb-refl-past.3/soup-verb-refl-past.3
    `Misha made pancakes/cooked soup for himself.'
Example #392:

    b.       Misha miin-in tuus-ta-n-na.
    Misha soup-3.acc salt-verb-refl-past.3
    `Misha salted his soup.'
Example #393:

    c.       Misha taah-yn abyrax-ta-n-na.
    Misha clothes-3.acc patch-verb-refl-past.3
    `Misha put patches on (mended) his clothes.'
Example #394:

    (41)    a.       Misha sirej-in aryy-la-n-na/ilii-tin krem-na-n-na.
    past.3
    `Misha buttered his face/put cream on his hands.'
Example #395:

    b.       Misha baah-yn em-te-n-ne.
    Misha wound-3.acc medicine-verb-refl-past.3
    `Misha cured his wound.'
Example #396:

    c.       Misha ataq-yn byrdax-ta-n-na
    Misha leg-3.acc mosquito-verb-refl-past.3
    `Misha killed mosquitoes on his leg.'
Example #397:

    d.       Misha beje-tin xaar-da-n-na
    Misha self-3.acc snow-verb-refl-past.3
    `Misha removed snow from himself.'
Example #398:

    (43)         Kesha öj-dö-n-nö/kymnjyy-la-n-na.
    Misha intelligence-verb-refl-past.3/whip-verb-refl-past.3
    But: `Kesha came to his senses/came into possession of a whip.'
Example #399:

    (44)         Kesha oqo-lo-n-no.
    Kesha child-verb-refl-past.3
    But: 'Kesha fathered a child.'
Example #400:

    (46)       a.         Olox Misha-ny öj-dö-n-nör-dö.
    Life Misha-acc intelligence-verb-refl-caus-past.3
    `Life made Misha come to his senses.'
Example #401:

    (47)     a.       Kyhalqa Misha-ny üle-le-t-te.
    Need Misha-acc work-verb-caus-past.3
    `Poverty made Misha work.'
Example #402:

    b.       Muus balyk-ta-p-pa-ta.
    Ice fish-verb-caus-neg-past.3
    `Ice prevented from fishing.'
Example #403:

    c.       Kiine oloq-u öj-dö-t-ör.
    Cinema life-acc intelligence-verb-caus-aor
    `Cinema helps understand life.'
Example #404:

    (48)     a.       Misha uonna Masha beje beje-ler-in öj-dö-h-öl-lör.
    Misha and Masha self self-pl-3.acc intelligence-verb-rec-aor-pl
    `Misha and Masha understand each other.'
Example #405:

    b.       Misha uonna Masha miin-ner-in tuus-ta-s-ty-lar.
    Misha and Masha soup-pl-3.acc salt-verb-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha salted each other's soup.'
Example #406:

    c.       Misha uonna Masha oqo-lor-ugar alaadjy-la-s-ty-lar.
    Misha and Masha child-pl-3.dat pancake-verb-rec-past-pl
    `Misha and Masha made pancakes for each other's children.'
Example #407:

    (51)     a.       Misha aba-tyj-da.
    Misha bitterness-verb-past.3
    `Misha became annoyed.'
Example #408:

    b.       Ise aba-tyj-da.
    Greed bitterness-verb-past.3
    `Greed turned into bitterness.'
Example #409:

    (52)     a.       Misha myndyr oqonnjor-suj-ar.
    Misha wise old.man-verb-aor
    `Misha is pretentiously behaving like a wise old man.'
Example #410:

    b.       Baas kuhaqan irie-tij-bit
    wound bad pus-verb-past
    `The wound is exuding bad pus.'
Example #411:

    c.       Ulaxan kihi er-eeri Misha kyra oqo-tuj-but.
    Big person aux-ger Misha small child-verb-past
    `Though a grown-up adult, Misha became like a small child.'
Example #412:

    (53)     a.       Timir ihit djebin-nij-bit.
    Iron casserole rust-verb-past
    `The iron casserole became rusty.'
Example #413:

    b.       Timir ihit kyhyl djebin-nij-bit.
    Iron casserole red rust-verb-past
    `The iron casserole became covered with red rust.'
Example #414:

    (54)     a.       Misha Lena-laax-xa maany yaldjyt-ymsyj-ar.
    Misha Lena-assoc-dat dear guest-verb-aor
    `Misha behaves like a dear guest at Lena's place.'
Example #415:

    b.       Misha üöreneecci-ler-ge ulaxan tojo-msuj-ar.
    Misha pupil-pl-dat big boss-verb-aor
    `Misha behaves like a big cheese towards the children.'
Example #416:

    c.       Akaary njire-msij-ime!
    Stupid calf-verb-neg
    `Stop acting naïve (like a stupid calf)!'
Example #417:

    (59)     Misha süür-eke-lee-te.
    Misha run-dimin-verb-past.3
    b) `Misha ran around in short bouts.'
Example #418:

    (60)     Misha xonuu-nu süür-eke-lee-te.
    Misha field-acc run-dimin-verb-past.3
    b) `Misha ran around a field in short bouts.'
Example #419:

    (61)     Misha xonuu-ka-ny süür-eke-lee-te.
    Misha field-dimin-acc run-dimin-verb-past.3
    `Misha ran around a small field in short bouts.'