ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Jochen Zeller (2003). Word-level and phrase-level prefixes in Zulu.

URL: http://www.jzeller.de/pdf/zulubuda.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3837&langcode=zul (2021-06-18).

 

Example #1:

    (1) a. Abafana ba-sebenza esitolo
    boy2      SP2-work in.shop7
    'The boys are working in the shop.'
Example #2:

    b. Isitshudeni si-funda incwadi
    student7 SP7-read letter9
    'The student is reading the letter.'
Example #3:

    c. Izintombi zi-dlala     ne-ngane
    girl10     SP10-play with-child9
    'The girls are playing with the child.'
Example #4:

    (2) a. Abafana [aba-sebenza esitolo] ba-fik-e              namhlanje
    boy2      RC2-work       in.shop SP2-arrive-PERF today
    'The boys who work in the shop arrived today.'
Example #5:

    b. Incwadi [esi-yi-funda-yo        isitshudeni] in-de
    letter9 RC7-OC9-read-RS student7 SP9-long
    'The letter that the student is reading is long.'
Example #6:

    c. Ingane [ezi-dlala      na-yo      izintombi] i-ya-hleka
    child9 RC10-play with-PC9 girl10             SP9-FOC-laugh
    'The baby with whom the girls play is laughing.'
Example #7:

    (3) a. Umfana [o-sebenza lapha] u-ya-gula
    boy1      RC1-work here SP1-FOC-be.sick
    'The boy who works here is sick'
Example #8:

    b. Ukudla [ugogo        a-ku-pheka-yo]          ku-mnandi impela
    food14 granny1a RC1a-OC14-cook-RS SP14-tasty indeed
    'The food that granny cooks is tasty indeed'
Example #9:

    c. Incwadi [e-fund-wa          yi-sitshudeni] in-de
    letter9 RC9-read-PASS by.student7 SP9-long
    'The letter that is being read by the student is long'
Example #10:

    (4)   umfazi [o-bantwana ba-khe          u-ba-limaz-ile]
    woman1 RC1-child2 POSS2- PC1 2ndSG-OC2-hurt-PERF
    'the lady whose children you hurt'
Example #11:

    (8) a. Indoda [e-baba     u-shay-e      izinja za-yo]         i-thukuthele
    man9 RC9-father1a SP1a-hit-PERF dog10 POSS10-PC9 SP9-be.angry
    'The man whose dogs my father hit is angry.'
Example #12:

    b. INgisi [eli-baba     u-hlala   endlini ya-lo]      li-ya-vilapha
    Engl.5 RC5-father1a SP1a-stay in.hut9 POSS9-5 SP5-FOC-be.lazy
    'The Englishman in whose hut my father is staying is lazy.'
Example #13:

    (9)    Indoda [ubaba a-shay-e        izinja za-yo]  i-thukuthele
    man9 father1a RC1a-hit-PERF dog10 POSS10-Pc9 SP9-be.angry
    'The man whose dogs my father hit is angry.'
Example #14:

    b. Indoda [e-baba       u-ya-yi-thanda]         i-y-inkosi
    man9 RC9-father1a SP1a-FOC-OC9-love SP9-COP-chief9
    'The man whom father likes is a chief.'
Example #15:

    (11)   intombi [e-nina      a-zi-hlupha        nga-yo]
    girl9 RC9-mother1a SP1a-REFL-worry with-Pc9
    'the young woman whose mother worries about her'
Example #16:

    (12) a.    inkosi [e-mntwana wa-yo                u-ya-gula]
    chief9 RC9-child1 POSS1- PC9           SP1-FOC-be.sick
    'the chief whose child is ill'                     (Poulos 1982, 111)
Example #17:

    b.    inkosi [e-mntwana wa-yo                 a-gula-yo]
    chief9 RC9-child1 POSS1- PC9           SP1-be.sick-RS
    'the chief whose child is ill'
Example #18:

    namhlanje
    today
    Literally: 'The man from whom the girls ask a kiss is not here today'
Example #19:

    b.    Indoda [e-ng-ubaba]        i-hamb-ile
    man9 RC9-COP-father1a SP9-go-PERF
    'The man who is a father has left.'
Example #20:

    (24)   intombi [e-nina      a-zi-hlupha        nga-yo]
    girl9 RC9-mother1a SP-1a-REFL-worry with-Pc9
    'the young woman whose mother worries about her'
Example #21:

    (25)    intombi [le  unina     a-zi-hlupha       nga-yo]
    girl9 DEM9 mother1a SP-1a-REFL-worry with-Pc9
    'the young woman whose mother worries about her'
Example #22:

    (26) a. lo     mfana
    DEM1 boy1
    'this boy'
Example #23:

    b. laba bafana
    DEM2 boy2
    'these boys'