The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Yeon, Jae-Hoon (2002). The Causative-Passive Ambiguity and the Notion of "Contiguity" as a Crucial Factor in Explaining the.

URL: http://society.kisti.re.kr/~liok/html/Eoneohag/Vol_32/[Eoneohag32]8_Jaehoon_YEON.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3865&langcode=kor (2021-09-24).


Example #1:

    (1) John-i ipalsa-eykey               meli-lul     kkakk-i-ess-ta.
    Nom barber-Dat               hair-Acc     cut -Caus/Pass-Past
    (b) John had/got his hair       cut by the barber.
Example #2:

    (2) halmeni-ka sonca-eykey tung-ul kulk-hi-ess-ta.
    grandmother grandson        back-Acc scratch-Caus/Pass-past
Example #3:

    (3) emeni-ka      ai-eykey         cec-ul        mwul-li-ess-ta.
    mother-Nom child-Dat           nipple-Acc    bite-Caus/Pass-Past
    (b) Mother had/got her nipple bitten by the child.
Example #4:

    (5) a. John-i Mary-eykey        pal-ul    palp-hi-ess-ta.
    Nom       Dat       foot-Acc step on-Caus/Pass-Past-Dec
    `John made Mary step on his foot.'
Example #5:

    b. John-i          Mary-eykey son-ul cap-hi-ess-ta.
    Nom             Dat      hand-Acc hold-Caus/Pass-Past-Dec
    `John made Mary grab his hand.'
Example #6:

    c. John-i          Mary-eykey tali-lul nwul-li-ess-ta.
    Nom             Dat      leg-Acc press-Caus/Pass-Past-Dec
    `John made Mary press his leg.'
Example #7:

    (i) John-i        Mary-eykey      son-ul   mwukk-i-ess-ta.
    Nom            Dat       hand-Acc tie-Caus/Pass-Past-Dec
    `John made Mary tie his hands.'
Example #8:

    (13) sonca-ka          halmeni-uy         heli-lul palp-ess-ta.
    grandson-Nom      grandmother-Poss waist-Acc step on-Past-Dec
    `The grandson walked on grandmother 's back.'
Example #9:

    step on-Caus- Past-Dec
    `Grandmother made her grandson walk on her back.'
Example #10:

    (15) sonca-ka          halmeni-lul        heli-lul                      palp-ess-ta.
    grandson-Nom      grandmother-Acc waist-Acc                        step on-Past-Dec
    `The grandson walked on grandmother 's back.'
Example #11:

    `Grandmother intentionally made her grandson walk on her back.'
Example #12:

    (1)   chayk-i          (*ilpwule)       simhakey ccic-ki-ess-ta
    book-Nom         (intentionally) badly      tear-Pass-Past-Dec
    `The book (*intentionally) was torn badly.'
Example #13:

    (16) halmeni-ka   sonca-eykey heli-lul         palp-hi-ess-ta.
    grandma-Nom grandson-Dat waist-Acc        step on-Pass-Past-Dec
    `Grandmother got her back stepped on by her grandson.'
Example #14:

    (17) halmeni-ka         sonca-eykey heli-lul     palp-hi-ess-ta.
    grandma-Nom        grandson-Dat waist-Acc step on-Caus/Pass-Past-Dec
    (accidentally,   when she was playing with him on the floor).
Example #15:

    the bridle of his horse.
Example #16:

    salam-uy     kapang-ul    Mary-eykey ccic-ki-ess-ta.
    person-Gen handbag-Acc         Dat      tear-Caus/Pass-Past-Dec
    which belonged to someone he did not know at all.'
Example #17:

    `John made Mary cut his brother 's hair.'
Example #18:

    (21) a. Yongsu-ka Suni-eykey os/somay-lul                      cap-hi-ess-ta.
    Nom       Dat      clothes/sleeve-Acc          hold-Pass-Past-Dec
    `Yongsu had his sleeve grabbed by Mary.'
Example #19:

    b. John-i      Mary-eykey sinpal-ul          palp         -hi-ess-ta.
    Nom          Dat       shoe-Acc      step         on-Pass-Past-Dec
    `John had his shoe stepped on by Mary.'
Example #20:

    (21") Suni-ka      Yongsu-uy     os-ul               cap-ess-ta.
    Nom              Poss clothes-Acc          hold-Past-Dec
    `Suni grabbed Yongsu's clothes/sleeve.'
Example #21:

    (22) a. Suni-ka     pancang-eykey       ilum-ul    cek-hi-ess-ta.
    Nom class leader-Dat      name-Acc write down-Pass-Past-Dec
    `Suni was written down her name by the class leader.'
Example #22:

    `Yongsu was taken a picture by the movie-director.'
Example #23:

    (23) a. John-i Mary-eykey ilki-lul         ilk-hi-ess-ta.
    Nom        Dat diary-Acc       read-Pass-Past-Dec
    `John had his diary read by Mary.'
Example #24:

    b. Mary-ka John-uy/*ul ilki-lul            ilk-ess-ta.
    Nom      Poss/*Acc diary-Acc      read-Past-Dec
    `Mary read John's diary.'
Example #25:

    (26) a. John-i Mary-eykey        meli-lul     kkakk-i-ess-ta. (Korean)
    Nom        Dat       hair-Acc     cut-Pass-Past-Dec
    `John had his hair cut   by Mary.'
Example #26:

    (i)   emeni-ka         ai-ey uyhay cec-ul            mwul-li-ess-ta.
    mother-Nom       child- by     nipple-Acc      bite -Pass-Past
    `Mother had her nipple bitten by the child.'
Example #27:

    (ii) a. Mary-ka ku ai-eykey       pap-ul       mek-i-ess-ta.
    the child         meal         eat-Caus-Past-Dec
    `Mary made/let the child eat food.'
Example #28:

    b. Mary-ka       pem-eykey         tali-lul    mek-hi-ess-ta.
    tiger             leg         eat-Pass-Past-Dec
    `Mary got her leg eaten by a tiger.'
Example #29:

    (28) a. apeci-ka     atul-eykey hulk-ul         palp-hi-ess-ta.
    father-Nom son-Dat         earth-Acc step on-Caus/Pass-Past-Dec
    `Father made his son step on the earth'
Example #30:

    b. apeci-ka     mal-eykey     pal-ul     palp-hi-ess-ta.
    father-Nom horse-Dat       foot-Acc step on-Caus/Pass-Past-Dec
    `Father was stepped on by the horse.'
Example #31:

    (29) John-i     sensayng-eykey       meli-lul kkakk-i-ess-ta
    Nom teacher by              hair-Acc cut-Caus/Pass-Past-Dec
    than allowed).'
Example #32:

    (i)   sensayng-i John-eykey       chayk-ul     ilk-hi-ess-ta.
    teacher-Nom     Dat         book-Acc     read-Caus-Past-Dec
    `The teacher made John read the book.'
Example #33:

    (31) a. John-i      Mary-eykey           yakcem-ul cap-hi-ess-ta.
    Nom            Dat            flaw-Acc      catch-Pass-Past-Dec
    `John had his weak points      pointed out by Mary.'-- Passive
Example #34:

    b. John-i centangpho-ey            sikyey-lul     cap-hi-ess-ta.
    pawnshop-Loc             watch-Acc      catch-Caus/Pass-Past
    watch.'-- Causative