The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Polinsky, Maria & Eric Potsdam (2001). Backward Control: Evidence from Malagasy.

URL: http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/potsdam/papers/AFLA8.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-02-18).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 411&langcode=plt (2021-06-22).


Example #1:

    b.   *m-an-omboka      Rabe      m-i-tondra         ny     fiara
    PRES -ACT-begin Rabe       PRES -ACT-drive    the    car
    `Rabe is beginning to drive the car.'
Example #2:

    c.     n-i-vidi-an-an-dRabe            ny fiara         Rasoa             CIRC
    PAST-ACT-buy-CIRC-OBL.Rabe the car               Rasoa
    `Rabe bought a car for Rasoa.'
Example #3:

    (9)           anomboh-ana       [mitondra ny fiara          Rabe]
    begin- CIRC       drive       the car         Rabe
    `Rabe begins to drive a car.'
Example #4:

    (10)   a.     nanomboka misotra toaka Rabe ary mitady akangavavy izy
    began          drink booze Rabe andS seek       prostitute    he
    `Rabe began to drink booze and chase women.'6
Example #5:

    (11)   a.    *nanomboka       namaky      ny taratasy sy      menahatra      Rabe
    began           read        the letter    andVP is.embarrassed Rabe
    (`Rabe began     to read   the letter and was embarrassed.')
Example #6:

    (12)         mitondra ny fiara (ve)        Rabe (*ve)?
    drive      the car Q          Rabe Q
    `Is Rabe driving the car?'
Example #7:

    (13)        %manomboka mitondra ny fiara Rabe              ve
    begin        drive      the car Rabe          Q
    `Has the teacher begun to drive?'
Example #8:

    (14)   a.    niteny ity tonon-kira ity (indroa) Rabe            (*indroa)
    knock this door          this twice     Rabe       twice
    `Rabe knocked twice on this door.'
Example #9:

    b.    nanandrana niteny ny tonon-kira (indroa        )     Rabe (*indroa)
    tried        knock the door           twice          Rabe twice
    `Rabe twice tried hard to knock on the door.'
Example #10:

    (15)   a.    nanomboka      niteny ity tonon-kira ity Rabe indroa
    began          knock this door       this Rabe twice
    `Rabe twice   began to knock on this door.'
Example #11:

    (16)         m-an-omboka            [m-itondra/h-itondra     ny fiara Rabe]
    PRES-ACTIVE-begin PRES-drive/ FUT-drive the car          Rabe
    `Rabe has begun to drive the car.'
Example #12:

    (18)        *manomboka       ny mpianatra mitondra ny fiara
    begin           the student    drive       the car
    (`The student is beginning/has begun to drive the car.')
Example #13:

    (19)           mino      an-dRabei [ho     n-itaraina ti ] aho
    believe ACC -Rabe COMP PAST-ACT.complain I
    `I believe Rabe to have complained.'
Example #14:

    (20)          *mino an-dRabei [ho          nanomboka [nitaraina ti ]] Rasoa
    believe ACC -Rabe COMP began             complain      Rasoa
    (`Rasoa believes Rabe to have begun to complain.')
Example #15:

    (24)          manomboha mitondra            ny fiara (ianao)
    begin.IMPER drive             the car you
    `Begin to drive the car!'
Example #16:

    (25)          m-i-jery ny mpianatra daholo ny mpampiana tra
    watch       the student    all      the teacher
    `All the teachers watched the student(s).'
Example #17:

    (26)        *tsara daholo tonga ny mpianatra
    good all          arrived the student
    (`It's good all students arrived.')
Example #18:

    (27)    a.    nanomboka omaly            [mihomehy daholo ny ankizy]
    began        yesterday     laugh         all   the children
    `Yesterday the children   began to all laugh.'
Example #19:

    (29)    a.   *manomboka mitondra         ny fiara Rabe i ny mpampianatrak
    begin        drive         the car Rabe       the teacher
    (`The teacher has begun to have Rabe drive the car.')
Example #20:

    b.   *manomboka mitondra         ny fiara Rabe i prok
    begin        drive         the car Rabe
    (`Someone has begun to have Rabe drive the car.')
Example #21:

    (31)          manomboka [mitondra ny fiara              Rabe i ] PROi
    begin         drive         the car       Rabe
    `Rabe is b eginning to drive the car.'