The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:


URL: http://www.unige.ch/lettres/linge/syntaxe/journal/pdf_volume_one/article7_durrleman.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 557&langcode=jam (2021-09-19).


Example #1:

    (1)     Di gyal nuh tan good none-at-all
    The girl [neg] behave good [neg] at all
    `The girl doesn't behave well at all'
Example #2:

    (2)     Im nuh gi di gyal nutn
    S/he [neg] give the girl nothing
    `S/he doesn't give the girl anything'
Example #3:

    (3)     Im tink seh dat no right
    S/he think that that [neg] right
    `S/he thinks that that's not right'
Example #4:

    (4)     Jan like im
    John like him/her
    `John likes him/her'
Example #5:

    (7)     A fi di gyal yaad dat
    [foc] for the girl home that
    `That's the girl's home'
Example #6:

    (8)     A fi Mi/yu/Im/Wi/Uno/Dem yaad dat
    [+foc] for me/you/him/we/you[+plural]/them yard that
    `That's my/your/his/our/your[+plural]/their home'
Example #7:

    (9)     Mi/yu/Im/Wi/Uno/Dem                   nuo betta
    I/you/S/he/We/You[+plural]/They       know better
    `I/you/S/he/We/You[+plural]/They know better'
Example #8:

    (10)       `im did really gwaan so?
    S/he [+past] really go+on so
    `S/he really behaved like that?/ Did S/he really behave like that?'
Example #9:

    (1)   Dem     en/did nuo dat
    Them [+past] know that
    `They knew that'
Example #10:

    (2)   Mi/yu/Im/Wi/Uno/Dem              en/did nuo betta
    I/you/S/he/We/You[+plural]/They [+past] know better
    `I/you/S/he/We/You[+plural]/They knew better'
Example #11:

    (3)   Im shuda nyam di bammy lang taim
    S/he [+modal] eat the bammy long time
    `S/he should've eaten the bammy a long time ago'
Example #12:

    (4)   Im a nyam di bammy
    S/he [+progressive] eat the bammy
    `S/he is eating the bammy'
Example #13:

    (5)a. Jan shuda en a ron                                              Bailey (1966)
    John [+modal] [+past] [+prog] run
    `John should have been running'
Example #14:

    (7)        Piita neva shuda tief di mango-dem
    Peter never [+modal] thief the mango-[plur]
    `Peter never shoud've stolen the mangoes'
Example #15:

    (8)        Wantaim, wan man en ha wan gyal-pickni nomo                               Bailey (1971)
    One time, one man [past] have one girl-child no-more
    `Once upon a time, there was a man who had an only daughter'
Example #16:

    (13)a. Jan shuda did love dat                         Mod+a > T
    John Mod+a [past] love that
    "John should have loved that"
Example #17:

    (14)a. Mi wuda mos haffi ron                             Mod+a > other Mods
    Me Mod+a must have to run
    "I would have had to run"
Example #18:

    (30) Im say dat saim ting deh
    S/he say that same thing there
    `S/he said that very thing'
Example #19:

    (32) Jan did nyam di bammi
    John [+past] eat the bammy
    `John had eaten the bammy'
Example #20:

    (37)a. Jan tink seh im a di bess
    John think that he [equative] the best
    `John thinks/*thought that he is/*was the best'
Example #21:

    (38)a. Yestaday, Jan certanly nyam nuff (a di ) bammy!
    Yesterday, John certainly eat plenty (of the) bammy
    `Yesterday, John certainly ate plenty (of the) bammy!'
Example #22:

    b.       Yestaday, Jan tink seh im a big man, bot now im nuo seh nutn no go so
    Yesterday, John think that he a big man, but now he know that nothing [neg] go so
    `Yesterday, he thought that he was a grown up, but now he knows that it's not so
Example #23:

    (40) Im a (g)o nyam dat
    S/he [prog] [prosp] eat that
    S/he is going to eat that
Example #24:

    (62) Jan did a nyam uno bammi                         (... good ting mi tell im fi stap)
    John [+past] [+prog] eat your[plur] bammy        (... good thing I tell him to stop)
    `John was eating your bammy                      (...good thing I told him to st
Example #25:

    (63) Jan nuo dat
    John know that
    `John knows that'
Example #26:

    (69) Y(u) a go go deh?
    You [+prog] [+prosp] go there
    `You're going to go there?'
Example #27:

    (72) Mi (did) jus nuo dat
    I only/somehow ([past] = knew) know that
    *I just previously knew that
Example #28:

    (73) Kk w zo        f
    Kk do work DET finish
    `Kk finished doing the work'
Example #29:

    (74) Kk d mlnkn          v
    Kk eat rice      DET finish
    `Kk finished eating the rice'
Example #30:

    (86)a. Im done nuo dat
    S/he done know that
    `S/he already knows that'
Example #31:

    (87) Im done nuo seh wi done
    S/he [+anterior] know done that we [+completive]
    `S/he already knows that we're finished'
Example #32:

    d.     Im (*aredi) mosa (aredi) gi `im di gassip
    S/he (*already) must [epistemic] (already) give her/him the gossip
    `S/he must have already given her/him the gossip'
Example #33:

    e.     Im (*aredi) did (aredi) nuo dat
    S/he (*already) did (already) know that
    `S/he already knew that'
Example #34:

    f.    Im (aredi) a (*aredi) gwaan bad
    S/he (already) [prog] (*already) go+on bad
    `S/he's already behaving badly'
Example #35:

    (94) Yu nuh nuo im? A di same wan weh chat-chat wi business?
    personal affairs'
Example #36:

    (98) im still a chat-chat di people-dem business bout di place
    S/he still [prog] Verb-Verb the people [+plur] business around the place
    `She's still incessantly spreading those people's private affairs all over town'
Example #37:

    (99) Im nuh done chat chat di people-dem business all now?
    S/he [neg] [completive] [frequentative] chat-chat the people [plur] business even now?
    `S/he hasn't yet finished incessantly spreading those persons' private affairs?'
Example #38:

    (20)a. Jan nuh jus pain di door deh?
    John neg [retrosp] paint the door there
    `Isn't it just a while ago that John painted that door?'
Example #39:

    d.    Im (*aredi) mosa (aredi) gi `im di gassip
    S/he (*already) must [epistemic] (already) give her/him the gossip
    `S/he must have already given her/him the gossip'
Example #40:

    e.    Im (*aredi) did (aredi) nuo dat
    S/he (*already) did (already) know that
    `S/he already knew that'
Example #41:

    (47)       Im nyam di whole a i done aredi
    S/he eat the whole of it [completive] [anterior]
    "S/he finished eating it all already"
Example #42:

    (49) Im nyam di whole a i done AREDI
    S/he eat the whole of it [completive] [anterior]
    "S/he finished eating it all ALREADY"