The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Arka, I Wayan (2000). Voice and Being Core: Evidence from (Eastern) Indonesian Languages.

URL: http://eprints.anu.edu.au/archive/00002222/01/Arka_Voice.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-03-29).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 869&langcode=ind (2021-09-19).


Example #1:

    b. Dia me-lihat              saya                        (Indonesian)
    3SG AV-see                1SG
    `(S)he saw me'
Example #2:

    b. Saya mem-(p)ukul         dia         (Ag Verb Pt) (Indonesian)
    1SG AV-hit               3SG
    `I hit him/her'
Example #3:

    b. Dia saya pukul                                 (Pt Ag Verb) (Indonesian)
    3SG 1SG OV.hit
    `Him/Her, I hit'
Example #4:

    (11) a. Amir duduk di kursi baru itu                                                  (Indonesian)
    name sit     on chair new that
    `Amir sat on the new chair'
Example #5:

    c.* Kursi baru        itu (yang) di-duduk oleh Amir.
    chair new         that REL     PASS-sit by name
    `It was the chair that Amir sat on'
Example #6:

    (12) a. Amir men-duduk-i kursi itu                                               (Indonesian)
    name AV-sit-APPL chair that
    `Amir sat on the chair'
Example #7:

    b. Kursi baru itu (yang) di-duduk-i                          oleh   Amir
    chair new that REL             PASS-sit-APPL             by     name
    `It was the chair that Amir sat on'
Example #8:

    c. Kursi     itu saya duduk-i                                              (Indonesian)
    chair     that 1SG OV.sit-APPL
    `The chair, I sat on (it)'
Example #9:

    b. Ruangan itu     di-masuk-i               oleh perampok    (pass.) (Indonesian)
    room     that PASS-go.in-APPL            by robber
    `The room was entered by a robber'
Example #10:

    (28) a. Diri-nya      di-utamakan=nya              (-nya is core = OV)        (Indonesian)
    self-3        di-prioritise=3
    `(S)he prioritized himself/herself'
Example #11:

    b. Diri-nya      dia utamakan                                  (OV)
    self-3        3 OV.prioritize
    `(S)he prioritized himself/herself'
Example #12:

    c. ?*Diri-nya di-utamakan oleh=nya/AMir                 (-nya is not core = PASS)
    self.3 di-priorotize by=3/name
    `Himself was prioritized by him/Amir'
Example #13:

    (40) a. Saya mem-beli-kan Amir             baju baru
    1SG AV-buy-APPL name               shirt new                      (Indonesian)
    `I bought a new shirt for Amir'
Example #14:

    b. Amir saya beli-kan               baju     baru             (Amir=Ben SUB)
    name 1SG OV.buy-APPL             shirt    new
    `For Amir, I bought a new shirt'
Example #15:

    d. Baju baru itu         saya beli           untuk     Amir
    shirt new that        1SG OV.buy          for       name
    `The new shirt, I bought it for Amir'
Example #16:

    (41) a.?*Bajubaru itu       di-beli-kan Amir oleh            Tono           (Indonesian)
    shirt new that PASS-buy name by                      name
    `The new shirt was bought for Amir by Tono'
Example #17:

    b. Baju baru itu       di-beli     untuk    Amir oleh         Tono
    shirt new that PASS-buy for              name by           name
    `The new shirt was bought for Amir by Tono'
Example #18:

    (44) a. Dia tak        meng-hiraukan diri-nya                         (AV) (Indonesian)
    3SG NEG AV-care                self-3
    `(S)he didn't care with himself/herself'
Example #19:

    b. Dirinya tak       dia      hiraukan                          (OV)
    self-3    NEG 3SG          OV.care
    `Himself/herself, (s)he didn't care (with)'
Example #20:

    (48) a. Dia    bisa     melihat diri-nya                                (AV) (Indonesian)
    3SG can         AV-see self-3
    `(S)he can see himself/herself'
Example #21:

    b. Diri-nya bisa dia          lihat                           (OV)
    self-3     can      3SG OV.see
    `Himself/herself, (s)he can see'
Example #22:

    c. ??Dirinya bisa di-lihat          oleh     dia              (PASS.)
    self-3     can     PASS-see by           3SG
    `Himself/herself can be seen by him/her'
Example #23:

    d. *Dia bisa       dilihat      oleh dirinya                  (PASS)
    3SG can         PASS-see by          self-3
    `(S)he can be seen by himself/herself'