ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Arka, I Wayan (2000). Control and Argument Structure: Explaining Control into Subject in Indonesian.

URL: http://eprints.anu.edu.au/archive/00002221/01/Arka__control.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-03-29).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 870&langcode=ind (2021-09-27).

 

Example #1:

    (2)                                                                             i
    negotiate      with        rebel              already   3PL          OV.try
    (ii) * `To negotiate with the rebels was tried by them'
Example #2:

    (4)     Amir       mem-baca          buku      itu.
    Amir       AV-read           book      That
    `Amir is reading the book'
Example #3:

    (5)    Buku      itu     di-baca            oleh          Amir
    book      that    PASS-read          by            Amir
    `The book was read by Amir'
Example #4:

    (6)    Buku      itu      saya/kamu/dia            baca
    book      that     1sg/2/3                  read
    `The book, I/you/(s)he read.'
Example #5:

    (7) a. Para ibu i   juga ingin [ __ i mengubah        penampilan-nya]                              (non-finite)
    Q mother also want              AV.change      appearance-3SG
    `Mothers also want to change their appearance'
Example #6:

    (8) Tapi saya belum tahu apakah saya akan                          mampu    menggungguli           Irene
    but      1SG not.yet know whether 1SG FUT able                   AV.defeat   name
    `But, I'm not sure yet whether I will be able to defeat Irene'
Example #7:

    (9) [Penonton tanpa tiket] i di-perkirakan       [ __i akan mem-banjir-i Belanda ]                (raising from
    spectator without ticket PASS-think             FUT AV-flood-APPL Netherlands                a finite comp.)
    `The Netherlands is believed to be flooded by (football) supporters without tick
Example #8:

    (10) a Dia i juga menolak [ _ i membicarakan kemungkinan formasi tim                Italia]        (subject
    3SG also AV.refuse          AV.discuss       possibility      formation team name           controlled)
    `He also refused to discuss the possible formation of the Italian team'
Example #9:

    (11) a. Viagra membuat pria i [ __ i beraktivitas lebih         giat     dari    normal
    name AV.make man             do.things     more         active   than    normal
    `Viagra makes a man more active than he usually is'
Example #10:

    (12) a. Gerilyawan Abu Sayyaf i kemarin       menolak [ __ i bertemu negosiator         pemerintah]
    guerilla    name           yesterday AV.refuse           meet     negotiator        government
    `The Abu Sayyaf guerilla yesterday refused to meet the government negotiator'
Example #11:

    (13) Gus Dur i suka [ __i menduduh orang tanpa               menyebut             nama]
    name      like          AV.accuse people without mention                     name
    `Gur Dur likes to accuse someone (else) but refuses to name (him/her)'
Example #12:

    (14)   a. Italia i men-coba [ __ i mengubah pola             serangan]                (obligatory control)
    name AV.try                AV.change pattern       attack
    `Italy tried to change (its) attacking patterns'
Example #13:

    b.* Italia i men-coba [ ia/mereka i/j      mengubah pola           serangan]
    name AV.try 3SG                        AV.change pattern       attack
    `Italy tried to change (its/their) patterns of attack'
Example #14:

    (15)   a. Saya i hanya ingin [ __ i jadi    yang terbaik ]                            (optional control)
    1SG only want               become REL best
    `I simply want to become the best'
Example #15:

    b. Sayai hanya ingin [ sayai/diaj jadi        yang     terbaik ]
    1SG only want     1SG/3SG       become REL         best
    `I simply want *me/him/her to be the best'
Example #16:

    (16)   a. Ia     menyanyi [untuk=mu]
    3SG sing           for=2SG
    `(S)he sang for you'
Example #17:

    b. Ayah membeli baju [untuk adik]                                        (monotrans. pred; untuk = OBLben)
    father AV.buy shirt for             little.sibling
    `Father bought a shirt for (our) little brother/sister'
Example #18:

    (19)   a. Ayah membeli baju [untuk adik]                                              (Ben = non-Core)
    father AV.buy shirt for             little.sibling
    `Father bought a shirt for (our) little brother'
Example #19:

    b. Ayah mem-beli-kan adik                  baju                                  (Ben = Core/OBJ)
    father AV-buy-APPL little sibling shirt
    `Father bought a shirt for (our) little brother'
Example #20:

    c. Adik            di-beli-kan          baju                             (Ben = Core/SUBJ)
    little sibling PASS-buy-APPL shirt
    `For (our) little brother, a shirt was bought'
Example #21:

    a.[ _i   Menolong diri sendiri]     yang harus kita i     usahakan terlebih dahulu       (SOA=SUBJ)
    AV.help     self           FOC must      1PLInc OV.try    first
    `Helping ourselves is what we must try first'
Example #22:

    b. * [ _i Menolong        diri sendiri] yang harus   kita i berusaha terlebih dahulu   (SOA=SUBJ)
    AV.help    self              FOC must       1PLInc OV.try     first
    `Helping ourselves is what we must try first'
Example #23:

    (26)      a. Sayai sudah pernah         men-coba [ __i       berdagang   lewat      internet]
    1SG already ever           AV-try               trade       via        internet
    `I have tried to do business on the internet'
Example #24:

    b. [ __i Berdagang lewat internet]      (yang) sudah pernah sayai coba
    trade      via    internet     FOC      already ever  1SG OV.try
    `Doing business on the internet is what I have tried to do'
Example #25:

    (28) a. Mereka i ingin [ __ i berkorban          untuk negara            dan bangsa]
    3PL      want              sacrifice  for      country and nation
    `They want to sacrifice themselved for the country and the nation'
Example #26:

    b. [ __ i Berkorban untuk negara       dan bangsa] yang      mereka i ingin-kan
    sacrifice       for   country and nation FOC            3PL        OV.want-APPL
    `Sacrificing (themselves) for the country and nation is what they want (to do)'
Example #27:

    (30) a. Baju baru itu    di-beli    oleh      Ayah          untuk Joni
    shirt new that PASS-buy by            father        for   name
    `The new shirt was bought for Joni by Father'
Example #28:

    b. Joni di-beli-kan         baju baru     itu oleh Ayah
    name PASS-buy-APPL shirt new           that by father
    For Joni, the shirt was bought by Father
Example #29:

    (31) a.Presiden   minta        Gubernur BI, Syahril Sabirin, [__ mundur]
    president (AV.)ask governor BI name                        step.down
    `The president asked the Governor of Bank Indonesia, Syahril Sabirin, to step do
Example #30:

    b. Gubernur BI di-minta [__ mundur]                 (oleh Presiden)
    governor BI PASS-ask            step.down       by      president
    `The governor of Bank Indonesia is asked to step down (by the president)'
Example #31:

    (33) a.Orang itu mem-berani-kan diri(nya)/*dia         (untuk) melapor ke kantor polisi
    person that AV-dare-CAUSE self(3SG)/3SG                       AV.report to office police
    `The person mustered up the courage to report to the police station'
Example #32:

    b. ?* [ __ Melapor ke kantor polisi ] yang dia beranikan              dirinya
    AV.report to office police FOC 3SG OV.dare-CAUS self-3
    `Reporting to the police station was what (s)he mustered up the courage to do'
Example #33:

    c. La Hoya     tampak payah     di dua ronde akhir
    name        appear exhausted in two round final
    `La Hoya looked exhausted in the last two rounds'
Example #34:

    [lemak    yang    [ingin   [ __ anda        hilangkan...]]]
    fat       FOC     want          2SG         OV.remove
    `Every program from Marie France specifically deals with the fat that you want t
Example #35:

    dan melangkah jauh di turnamen                ini
    and proceed        far     in tournament this
    `He really wants his team to play their best and to proceed far in this tourname
Example #36:

    b. Tim-nya sangat dia        inginkan            [ __ bermain   sebaik-baiknya]
    team-3SG very      3SG OV.want-APPL               `play      as.good.as.possible
    `He really wants his team to play their best'
Example #37:

    (38) a.?*[ __ Bermain sebaik-baiknya]          yang sangat      dia inginkan     tim-nya
    play       as.good.as.possible FOC very           3SG OV.want-APPL team-3SG
    `Playing their best was what he wanted his team to do'
Example #38:

    b. Tim-nya    sangat dia      inginkan     [agar bermain sebaik-baiknya]
    team-3SG very       3SG OV.want-APPL agar play        as.good.as.possible
    `He wanted his team to play their best'
Example #39:

    (39)    a. Banyak orang       tidak   mengetahui              Soeharto     sakit
    many     person    NEG AV.know.APPL                name         ill
    `Many people do not know that Soeharto is ill'
Example #40:

    c.?* Mereka         menyuka-i         [nongkrong di pinggir          jalan]                        (acc      rating:
    3PL            AV.like-APPL      sit.around     at side         road
    `They like sitting around at the road sides doing nothing'
Example #41:

    (47) a. Iai (ber-)janji kepada        saya [ __ i untuk      datang]
    3SG promise      to           1SG          for       come
    `(S)he promised (to) me that (s)he would come'
Example #42:

    b. Janji=nyai        kepada     saya [ __i untuk datang]
    promise=3POSS to             1SG         for      come
    `Her/his promise to me to come'
Example #43:

    (48) a. [ __i Berdagang lewat internet] (yang) sudah pernah            diai coba           (acc. rating: 96%)
    trade      via    internet FOC       already ever       3SG OV.try
    `Doing business on the internet is what (s)he has tried'
Example #44:

    (49) a Gus Dur minta [kepada rakyat            Indonesia] i [__i (untuk)    bersabar
    name     ask      to        people      Indonesia                   patient
    `Gus Dur asks the Indonesian people to be patient'
Example #45:

    b. Rakyat Indonesiai    di-minta            [__i untuk bersabar]
    people name          PASS- asked-                   patient
    `Indonesian people were asked to be patient'
Example #46:

    d. ??[__ i bersabar] yang diminta Gus Dur [kepada rakyat Indonesia]i
    patient         FOC      PASS-ask name       to        people name
    `Being patient is asked by Gus Dur to the Indonesian people'