ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Green, Melanie Predication, Equation and Information Structure: Evidence from Hausa Copular Sentences

URL: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Users/melanieg/Cop.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-03-29).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 948&langcode=hau (2021-09-19).

 

Example #1:

    A: Audu     mahauc ne                                                   new information focus
    Audu      butcher FM.m
    `Audu     is a butcher'
Example #2:

    A: A|& a, Audu mahauc ne                                               exhaustive listing focus
    no Audu butcher FM.m
    `No, Audu is a butcher'
Example #3:

    b. Su-wa ne i (ne) ti suka        tafi Amka                        wh-fronting
    3pl-who FM.pl         3pl.REL.PERF go America
    `Who went to America?'
Example #4:

    (42)    a. Dani (hu)      lo mar yosef                                                           identity
    Dani PRO.3ms not Mr Yosef
    `Dani is not Mr Yosef'
Example #5:

    b. Dani (*hu)     eyno mar yosef
    Dani PRO.3ms not. ms Mr Yosef
    `Dani is not Mr Yosef'
Example #6:

    c. Ani (hu)      mar yosef                                                               identity
    I    PRO.3ms Mr Yosef
    `I am Mr Yosef'
Example #7:

    b. Da] ma Musa da Shehu abokan gaske ne
    already Musa and Shehu friends.of truly FM.pl
    `Musa and Shehu were already true friends'
Example #8:

    b. Audu   dogo ne                                                                  predicative
    Audu    tall.m FM.m
    `Audu    is tall'
Example #9:

    (i) kaya suna       cikin mo	a
    goods 3pl.IMPF inside car
    `The stuff is in the car'
Example #10:

    b. Audu ne fialb (ba Bala ba)                                                     predicative
    Audu FM.m student.m NEG Bala NEG
    `Audu is a student' (not Bala)
Example #11:

    b. *alb, Audu ne
    student.m Audu FM.m
    `As for a student, (he) is Audu'
Example #12:

    A: alb ne                                                                         predicative
    student.m FM.m
    `(He) is a student'
Example #13:

    b. Q: Wane ne daakta a na]n?
    who.m FM.m director at here
    `Who is director here?'
Example #14:

    A: Audu ne                                                                           predicative
    Audu FM.m
    `Audu is'
Example #15:

    b. iarawon Audu ne                                                              specificational
    thief.DD Audu FM.m
    `The thief is Audu'
Example #16:

    b. Likita-n-a mutumn ca]n ne                                            equative
    doctor-of-1s man.of      there FM.m
    `My doctor is that man over there'
Example #17:

    b. Likita-n-a ne mutumn ca]n (ba abok-n-a ba)                     equative
    doctor-of-1s FM.m man.of there NEG friend-of-1s NEG
    `My doctor is that man over there' (not my friend)
Example #18:

    b. Likita-n-a, mutumn ca]n        ne (ba mutumn na]n ba)             equative
    doctor-of-1s man.of      there      FM.m NEG man.DD here NEG
    `My doctor, (he) is that man        over there' (not this man over here)
Example #19:

    b. Likita-n-a ne                                                          equative
    doctor-of-1s FM.m
    `(He) is my doctor'
Example #20:

    b. Ya]ra     suna   cikin      kant                                             PP complement
    children 3pl.IMPF inside.of shop
    `The children are inside the shop'
Example #21:

    b. Littafn sao ne                                                             AP complement
    book.DD new.m FM.m
    `The book is new'
Example #22:

    (i) halinsa           ke      nan
    character.of.3ms FOC.IMPF there
    `That's just his character'
Example #23:

    b. Kande ba ta ci abinci ba
    Kande NEG 2fs.PF eat food NEG
    `Kande didn't eat any food'
Example #24:

    b. Audu ne      fialb (ba Bala ba)                                      predicative
    Audu FM.m student.m NEG Bala NEG
    `Audu is a student' (not Bala)
Example #25:

    B: A|&a, ita   ce                                                                             predicative
    no PRO.3fs FM.f
    `No, she is'